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DAILY DOSE OF DELIGHT #12 (From AN AMERICAN IN PARIS)

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I think the term 'stylized ballet' is disingenuous..aren't most ballets stylized to some degree? I do like the fantasy aspect of the ballet, the colors versus the background.  I didn't find Kelly's character to be unfriendly, rather he was assertive as to how good he felt his work is/was. I did enjoy the juxtaposition of the color in this clip.

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Does the rest of the movie have to be stylized because the ending is? No. I think that would bring it into the realm of art films that no one understands. The very fact that the rest of the movie is reality grounded helps when it goes into the ballet, which is 18 minutes long. It could seem very long, indeed, if it was just more of the same we've seen in the previous 90 minutes. But, the story is a little like a fairy tale. Poor man helped by a rich woman he doesn't love but feels obligated to leaves her for a poor orphan. Orphan, wicked witch (selfish woman), poor woodcutter (poor painter). These characters seem to come from a fairy tale and since we have the rich man giving up the orphan and being unselfish, it has a happy ending. So, it's a fantasy set in a realistic Parisian set with a romantic ending.

I don't think Jerry is completely unlikable because we previously saw him greeting and meeting many Parisians with joy and friendship. I think he is a bit bitter about his lack of success with his painting endeavors and sees this "third year girl" as part of the reason why. In fact he tells her that her good opinion won't make him feel better and her criticism will bother him. He's a sensitive guy putting on a tough front.

I read what one person said about his "stalking" Lisa and I wonder whether what we would call stalking now wasn't menacing or stalking then. How was a guy supposed to get to talk to a girl if he didn't show up where she was? I agree that his actions in the jazz club were awful and he treated Milo badly that night, but she had an agenda for him and he didn't have one. He was uncomfortable accepting her patronage and it showed.

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I think that Minnelli needs to show a difference between America and Paris his approach of color and the fantasy of Ballet is a necessary evil.  Being a child of the 60's and living in the 21st century, I do not think the ballet needs to be less realistic.  I wonder what message would be left, if a ballet depicting reality was the road of choice.  

Regarding Jerry Mulligan as a common guy speaking to a wealthy woman shows, again the differences between the common man during this time period.  I again wonder about the intricate thought process Minnelli uses when bringing both cultures together.   

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1. Does a movie that has as stylized a scene as An American in Paris’ ending ballet need to use a less-than-realistic, stylized approach throughout the film?

On the contrary, just as you can't compose a symphony consisting entirely of crescendos you also cannot film an entire movie musical in one particular approach. In The Bad and the Beautiful, one of my favorite inside Hollywood dramas, the main character is a producer who thinks he can direct a saga better than one of the leading directors of the day. The director quits out of frustration and the producer takes over and creates a monumental flop. His main failure was to make every scene a climax. Just as dramas need variations in mood and pace, so do musicals require the use of action, dialog, slow and fast pacing and variations in style to tell the whole story.  The Broadway Melody number in Singin' in the Rain is a perfect example of using a stylized, less-than-realistic setting to change the pace and feel of the movie. It also moved the plot along as it emphasized how the introduction of sound would bring a sea change to the making of Hollywood musicals.

Similarly, in An American in Paris, the ballet sequence is staged to reflect the fact that we are watching what is going on in Jerry's head and heart, not in his real life. Bringing famous French paintings to life fits in perfectly with a story about an American ex-GI painter trying not too successfully to ply his craft in the heart of Montmartre, where many notable artists had lived and worked. His unfulfilled love for Lise is played out to its sad conclusion when he loses her and is left standing with a lone red rose in her place. The stylized set designs and choreography are perfectly meshed with Gershwin's magnificent tour de force opus, which gives the movie it's title, it's setting and it's plot. Had the entire film been staged in the same unrealistic style, the impact of the ballet sequence would have been lost.

2. What keeps Jerry Mulligan from being completely unlikeable in a scene in which he acts pretty darn unlikeable?

Jerry's character is not unlikeable at all. The greetings he exchanges with his fellow street artists reveals that. He is frustrated that his painting career has not been very successful, and he does not have an apparent love interest at that time which lends to his cynical and surly reactions to "third-years" and potential customers. It's clear he does not like the way his life is going and possesses a low level of self-esteem. People with low self-esteem tend to get cynical and distrustful of the rest of society. This explains his interactions with the art student and at first with Milo.

While he may have been short on tact, he undoubtedly had the art student pegged as a receptacle for lectures she knows nothing about. His initial encounter with Milo starts off pessimistically, reflecting the many times his paintings have been viewed by tourists without a sale. However, when she displays a more sophisticated, experienced sense of art to the point of liking two paintings Jerry also liked and indicates she is willing to buy them, his demeanor changes completely.

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Does a movie that has as stylized a scene as An American in Paris’ ending ballet need to use a less-than-realistic, stylized approach throughout the film?

I always thought that the sets in the movie reflect Jerry’s impression of the city. The sets match the paintings that he produces. We are seeing Paris through his eyes. Minelli’s Paris streets are muted with wonderful pops of color that focuses our attention where it needs to be. Flowers along his block, the gaudy car, the cafe.

What keeps Jerry Mulligan from being completely unlikeable in a scene in which he acts pretty darn unlikeable?

He is a smart aleck, but he is also self-deprecating. He never expected success (the sale of any painting). He goes through the motions of being a serious painter. He is an “in the moment” kind of guy. No past, no future, just now. And he puts everything into now. He seems a little world weary and selfish.

I didn’t like his character at the beginning of the movie - but when he gets back to his home and the people he interacts with everyday, he becomes likable. They are great and real people and they like him. They validate him as someone we should care about.

Some of the previous posts reflect on Jerry’s treatment of Milo. Now there’s a character I don’t like. She collects people and uses them. She wants total control and tries to achieve it by making people feel obligated. Ugh. She needs a reformation - maybe she should spend some time with the folks in High Society to straighten her out.

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2. What keeps Jerry Mulligan from being completely unlikable in a scene in which he acts pretty darn unlikable?

He appears friendly for most of the scene. When he's "rude" to the student, it's obvious he comes in contact with these types of people on a regular basis and that frustrates him but overall he looks like a likable guy.

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1. I haven't actually seen this entire film, only parts of it, but i think that different stylized approaches could be successfully pulled off in the film.

2. His smiling and somewhat goofy demeanor in the way he acts and interacts with the other characters, especially in the beginning of the scene. It appeared to me he was trying to play brash with a softer side underneath, which I relate to being a typical portrayal of a working class american.

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  1. What keeps Jerry Mulligan from being completely unlikeable in a scene in which he acts pretty darn unlikeable? He's played by Gene Kelly! Even as the obnoxious reporter in "Inherit The Wind", Kelly is not unlikeable. He has that wide, open grin and charming demeanor that is inherently likeable.

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I'm probably in the minority on this, but I don't find Jerry Mulligan likable in the least. He's rude, opportunistic, and a stalker. His constant ear to ear grin only makes him come off as smarmy. If I hadn't already known of and enjoyed Gene Kelly in other films before seeing this one I would probably just be put off from watching any of his other movies, and even having known of him before just made me see elements I hated from this character seeping in in other movies. The insincere plastic smile that looks more like he's posing for a toothpaste ad than feeling actual human emotions and the condescending attitude are big ones. At least in Singin' in the Rain these traits are minimal in comparison and aren't romanticized like they are here.

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7 hours ago, Jon Severino said:

DAILY DOSE OF DELIGHT #12 (FROM AN AMERICAN IN PARIS):

“Life’s candy and the sun’s a ball of butter.  Don’t bring around a cloud to rain on my parade.”  (from Funny Girl)

1. All musicals should be more-than-realistic.  They should take us where we can’t go ourselves: physically and emotionally.  They should leave us wanting to sing and dance through life if only as far as the car in the parking lot.  The plot and dialogue should also be heightened and mainly serve to bring us to the next number.  The actors should wear their hearts on their sleeves.  What was unfortunate about casting Ryan Gosling in La-La-Land is that he’s a subtle, understated actor (and he can’t sing or dance).  As Jeff tells Tony Hunter in The Band Wagon, “icebergs only show 1/8—I want 8/8!”  We need them to show the emotions that we must suppress to get through our day.  Some of us must pass the homeless everyday without making eye contact.  Some of us can’t quit our lousy jobs.  Some of us never tell our parents or children that we love them.  Some of us never really live because we’re too busy facing reality.  We need musicals to cry, laugh, sing and dance for us with heightened reality.  Musicals remind us that living without heart is no life at all.  And maybe it’s impossible to care about every one in the world—but maybe it’s damn worth trying to.

2. I found Gene Kelly's character to be completely likable but then, I'm from New Jersey.

 

 

I love it!   Thank you!

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Response to #1.

So many of the musicals of the 1950s contained stylized dream-ballet sequences, ex. Oklahoma, Lili, Daddy Long Legs, etc. I'm not sure the stylization of the ballets takes away from the reality of the musicals . . . let's be very honest, these musicals are not designed to be realistic. The stories are somewhat contrived, and I don't expect the scenery to be completely realistic. Case in point: Show Boat. The era in which Show Boat is supposed to happen was simply NOT that bright and colorful. Is the Paris of An American in Paris absolutely realistic? No, but it doesn't matter. We get the essence of Paris, and we understand that Jerry Mulligan is struggling to find himself and his place in the world, as is his friend Adam Cook (Oscar Levant). The Americans in this film represent a struggle with self and identity, while the French represent love, mystery, and allurement that only Europe possesses to us Americans. In other words, the "grass is greener" . . . So, the stylized approach works. 

Response to #2.

As I re-analyze Gene Kelly in his films during this course, I've come to the realization that he plays the same character over and over and over . . . the cad/heel/rascal/scoundrel who is redeemed by love. And, as beautifully as he dances, I have to say that I find this character trope of his a little boorish after so many films . . . The other characters in his films are fascinating. They are multi-faceted, do so much to advance the plot of the story, help each other out, and there he is . . . not really improving until love shows up in the form of a pretty woman (usually someone else's girl, and then he steals the girl, etc., etc., etc.). No, his character isn't likeable - from start to finish. He doesn't do right by Milo or Lise. His behavior is unacceptable. 

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Using a realistic approach to the movie makes the ballet at the end much more dream-like and stylized. Using both styles cues the audience that the ballet is imagination, while the rest is the real world. We all have our flights of fancy, so why should Jerry Mulligan be any different?

I'm not a dancer, so although I appreciate the expertise of the ballet scene, I usually tune out until the movie returns to the real world. I do the same thing to all of Gene Kelly's ballet insertions in his movies. I'm sure lots of people find them very diverting, but to me they're just disruptive. They don't do much to advance the story, and I feel they are only in the movies because they are Gene Kelly's special babies. The only one I really like is the one he does with Jerry Mouse in Anchors Aweigh. Probably because it's shorter and has real story to follow.

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1.      For the film to keep from falling completely into the realm of fantasy, it needs anchoring in realism. There is a delicate balance in this film. In contrast, Brigadoon begins with mist and references to lore to ensure that there is no mistake; it is fantasy. Much later, the bar scene in the city is a jarring contrast but that is deliberate as it shows that Tommy no longer belongs in reality. The inference is that love takes us out of reality, into either a nebulous world or to a place where romance and reality can co-exist. Of course, the gorgeous Lerner and Lowe music adds much to that effect. On the other hand, An American in Paris chronicles the artistic worlds of wannabes Mulligan and Cook, and their somewhat  ivory tower existence in the most romantic city in the world, similar to the opera La Boheme. But this is post-war time and the Old World order has changed people.  Songs like I got Rhythm and the other café and bar scenes are meant to add reality to the film to keep it grounded. Further, both main characters show a modern post-war strength that rejects that old system. When we first meet her and later at the perfume shop, Lise is very assertive with Jerry and lets him know that she considers his forwardness rude and unwelcome. On his part, Jerry is likewise skeptical of Milo’s advance and is not willing to be a kept man. Setting the ballet at the very end of the movie and carefully framing it as a flight from reality ensures that the film is as realistic as a any musical can be. Indeed, it concludes back in the world of noise, cars, and modernity where Jerry and Lise embrace.

2.      First, Jerry’s costume is so informal that the audience can identify him. At the beginning, he makes a mistake with orientation of the vender's modern art and it must be corrected by the artist. This overlooks the fact that it was originally displayed on the ground upside-down by the artist himself. However, that vulnerability breaks Jerry’s smugness (projected by his carriage and brisk walk). He is warmly greeted by the emphatic artist and policeman on the sidewalk and one even gives him a quasi-embrace. When he gets to his sales corner, he greets a neighboring artist who responds in a friendly manner. In this way, Jerry appears to be part of the artistic community, speaks French as well as the locals, has embraced the French lifestyle, and is a nice person. When the American woman approaches him and tries to engage him with her horrible French, he lapses into his New Jersey persona and is rude to her. It seems cheeky but justified. He is trying to establish himself as a bona fide artist and is not willing to play games with American tourists or students. He can see through her and is more interested in real art lovers than posers. He labels her “officious and dull.” Of course, this contrasts with reality. He is not a respected, recognized and commercially successful artist yet. However, it is his treatment of the woman that attracts Milo’s attention who is not bothered by his indignation, the impetus for their relationship. In fact, she takes his attitude as a challenge since she sees that he is hungry enough to need financial help and hopes it can lead to a romantic liaison. When his response to Milo’s query about the cost of two paintings shows that he has not had any sales, he again shows vulnerability. He asks her if she “knows what she is doing,” questioning her judgement of art. When she discovers she lacks money, he is quick to ensure that the sale is not consummated on credit. With this, we see Jerry as a street-tough guy whose career ambitions are realistic. When her car pulls up, he wisecracks “maybe I should have charged you more.” After the Depression and the war, American  audiences are like Jerry, struggling but cocky and unwilling to let anyone take advantage of them. The more the audience can identify with a character, the more likeable he/she is. They root for the character as they want someone to root for them.

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1 - The contrast between the more realistic scenes of Paris and the ballet sequence at the end helps to meld the film.  The ballet make the rest of the movie seem more “real” even as Minnelli makes use of his traditional lush colors.  

2 - I think Jerry’s “unlikeability” is meant to mask his fear of failure.  He’s gone to Paris to practice and perfect his art but he is, at heart, and American trying to fit in.  I remember thinking when I first saw the film, many years ago, that he is not a very like able character until he meets Lise.  Love brings out the likeability factor that lies just under the surface in the early scenes.

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Jerry is brash with the young woman because he has dealt with the type and has no time for the criticism of a young student trying to show what she knows. One might feel for her because Jerry dismissed her without giving her a chance to speak- in his eyes, she knew nothing and he had no time for it. One might picture her running off in tears. When the older woman appraloaches him and gives it to him just as good as he can dish it out, Jerry is put in his place. And he seems to like it. The second interaction makes him less of a curmudgeon.

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  1. In order for the ballet at the end to make more of an impact on the audience, it makes sense that it is more stylised than the rest of the film. It adds depth to the piece. 
  2. Kelly’s endless charisma certainly helps keep his character likeable. His dislike of the student is also justified. She is being critical of his work in a pseudo-intellectual manner that many students adopt while they are studying in school. This lack of real world knowledge and experience makes for an irritating experience. Jerry Mulligan’s jaded nature has been set up in the opening scenes, so the audience is already aware of his temperment, thus making his actions and words less surprising and off-putting. 

 

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One more point.  Jerry and Adam join a long tradition of American, post-war ex-pats who lived in Paris for artistic education and to join the enclave of artists. Ernest Hemingway and F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald as well as Gertrude Stein were the most notable examples of “Lost Generation” authors of the 20’s who did this. Woody Allen’s Midnight in Paris taps into that milieu. Jerry and Adam represent the era after the Second World War but exemplify the hopes of individuals who consider Europe as still the best place to be recognized as an artist and in this case, freedom from conformity of the 50's. Set against this is the glorious Gershwin music which, despite his minimal training in Paris, is all-American. The subversive message here is demonstrated by Jerry and Lise’s eventual union. Whether war or peace, American and its allies create a new kind of hopeful world, especially in the face of the threat of Communism and the Soviet Union.

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5 hours ago, A Ryan Seacrest Type said:

Jerry Mulligan is friendly and chatty to most around him at the start of this particular scene.  Unfortunately, that's where it ends.  He blows off the American student for what appears to be no legitimate reason, and while the rest of the clip in particular doesn't make Jerry come off too badly, what happens throughout the rest of the film makes Jerry one of my least likable characters in any movie I've ever seen.

Yes, An American in Paris looks wonderful.  Yes, the dance sequences and dream sequences are beautifully stylized.  Yes, Vincente Minnelli pulled off his usual signature tricks once again.  However, personally, I find this film loathsome.  It legitimately makes me physically ill watching Jerry Mulligan act the way he does to Milo, such as that ridiculous series of actions at the club where he first sees Lisa.  Then later, the way he stalks her.  And let's not sugarcoat it, there's nothing cute about it, he flat-out stalks her.  Later scenes with Jerry and Lisa, and Jerry and Milo, and Jerry and his guy friends (remember how he crumples up a note and tosses it to the ground like a petulant child?).....blergh.  I'm sorry.  An American in Paris is in my bottom-5 of all-time Best Picture winners.  I was hoping this week's Daily Doses wouldn't include this film, but perhaps Gigi instead.  We did get a clip from that one within today's lecture notes, so that made me smile.  Now perhaps I should have some champagne...

Image result for lucy champagne gif

This is an interesting modern take on AAIP. Irrespective of that, anyone who can work Lucy into film criticism of AAIP deserves recognition.

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I think it's purposely stylized for 2 underlying reasons:

1. Paris has always has always been perceived as a romantic city, the home of style and fashion. 

2. Travel abroad wasn't as common as it is today-people were eager and curious to know and see what life in and about Europe would feel like and Minnelli gives them that sense, feel and visual.

Gene Kelly:

 Minnelli also gives them the above through the character of Jerry-living in Paris but yet very American, so the audience can put themselves in his place.

Gene Kelly was very popular at the time and also personally relatable from his prior pro-American film appearances. So it made him safe to like. His "unlikable" scene is more tied into him acting well, American. 

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I think the fantasy ballet at the end of American in Paris is just that, a fantasy.  Therefore, it can stand alone because it is "imaginary", outside of "real life".  

The Jerry Mulligan character is endearing because we can see his vulnerability below the gruff surface.  Kelly portrays this through his facial expression as he looks hopefully on while Milo views his work, and through his body language as he folds his arms defensively and tries to look nonchalant.  

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5 hours ago, A Ryan Seacrest Type said:

Jerry Mulligan is friendly and chatty to most around him at the start of this particular scene.  Unfortunately, that's where it ends.  He blows off the American student for what appears to be no legitimate reason, and while the rest of the clip in particular doesn't make Jerry come off too badly, what happens throughout the rest of the film makes Jerry one of my least likable characters in any movie I've ever seen.

Yes, An American in Paris looks wonderful.  Yes, the dance sequences and dream sequences are beautifully stylized.  Yes, Vincente Minnelli pulled off his usual signature tricks once again.  However, personally, I find this film loathsome.  It legitimately makes me physically ill watching Jerry Mulligan act the way he does to Milo, such as that ridiculous series of actions at the club where he first sees Lisa.  Then later, the way he stalks her.  And let's not sugarcoat it, there's nothing cute about it, he flat-out stalks her.  Later scenes with Jerry and Lisa, and Jerry and Milo, and Jerry and his guy friends (remember how he crumples up a note and tosses it to the ground like a petulant child?).....blergh.  I'm sorry.  An American in Paris is in my bottom-5 of all-time Best Picture winners.  I was hoping this week's Daily Doses wouldn't include this film, but perhaps Gigi instead.  We did get a clip from that one within today's lecture notes, so that made me smile.  Now perhaps I should have some champagne...

Image result for lucy champagne gif

While I love AAIP, I also agree that Jerry Mulligan is obnoxious toward Lise (she even calls him on it), treats Milo like a spare tire, and overall acts like a spoiled kid.  Sure, if you want to spend two years in Paris living cheap while trying to sell your own mediocre artwork, that's fine.  Also, on Milo's part, if she wants to spend her money "buying" companionship, OK.  But she could buy a better companion - one who would actually flatter her and pay attention to her. 

Gigi to me is creepy - the dialog about and treatment of women in that film highlights older men using and tossing aside women who are often younger.  The movie is gorgeous, and I love Leslie Caron, but the last time I saw the film on big screen (about two years ago) I couldn't really watch Maurice Chevalier ogling "little girls."

So - to indulge my love of musicals, I often have to blink past the gender treatments. 

Thanks for your thoughts, A Ryan Seacrest Type!

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2. What keeps Jerry Mulligan from being completely unlikeable in a scene in which he acts pretty darn unlikeable?

It's really Jerry's interactions with Milo that keep him from just seeming like an ugly American in this scene. Part of it is Milo's reaction to him: If she had, like the student, been put off and disgusted by him, we would have followed suite. But she is instantly charmed, and we react in kind. Additionally, we see Jerry cowed a little bit by Milo, especially when she offers to buy his paintings, which adds some humanity to him and takes off the edge. A truly smug guy would've been prepared and probably had a ridiculous amount in mind when she offered to buy his paintings. Instead, he's not quite humbled, but he's certainly at a loss - he "never expected" this to happen. We all can identify with that feeling of not being good enough, and that gives us an entry point to empathizing with Jerry.

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I don't know if a stylized approach throughout would be a necessity per se, but it does give continuity and consistency to the movie overall. And that's not necessarily either a good or bad thing, it just depends on the perspective of the viewer. For example, Gone With the Wind, one of my all time favorites, had three directors in total, and it shows in many ways, such as in the way some scenes fade out to the next scene and black out altogether and then the next scene brought in. I've never found that bothersome, but I can see why some viewers would.

Mulligan didn't strike me as really unlikable other than when he was talking to the young woman who, I would say, had it coming with her superior know-it-all attitude when she probably knew very little. "They're always making profound observations they've overheard." His fellow artists and others he ran into on the street all seemed to like and respect him very much. On top of that, he's an artist, and artists are known for being eccentric and temperamental. Keeping all that in mind, it's easy to overlook his brief arrogance and disdain.

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- I pose this at the risk of being pummeled by choreographic savants. The stylized ending in "AAIP" is theoretically no different than any number of Busby Berkeley's stylized endings. Inasmuch as "AAIP" was based in reality, so, too, were the backstage plot lines of Berkeley's films. Albeit many of them a bit hokey, but real nonetheless. So, in essence,  a grand and/or stylized musical sequence can bring up the end of film and still not necessitate a reel full of preceding implausible, 'stylized' plot lines and/or dialogue. 

- I didn't find Kelly's character particularly offensive to the young American.  Like any creative person, he's not overly fond of others' criticism especially if he knows they haven't a clue what they're talking about or are engaging in conversation merely to impress the creator w/their all-too-obvious limited knowledge.  He's been around the block, so to speak, and he recognizes these pretentious posers for who they are.  He also recognizes a meal ticket when he sees her (Foch). He's no babe in the woods when it comes to discerning her real interest in his, uh, "abilities". A very similar character portrayal as the one he originated on Broadway in "Pal Joey" and as the opportunist in "For Me & My Gal".

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Don't understand the question about "stylization", so I'll pass. But I think the saving grace of Jerry is total self-awareness, although he does allow himself to be used by Milo, and probably would have continued to do so except for meeting a younger model woman.

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