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## Econometric Analysis of Panel Data

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**Econometric Analysis of Panel Data**William Greene Department of Economics Stern School of Business**Dear professor Greene,**I have a plan to run a (endogenous or exogenous) switching regression model for a panel data set. To my knowledge, there is no routine for this in other software, and I am not so good at coding a program. Fortunately, I am advised that LIMDEP has a built in function (or routine) for the panel switch model.**Endogenous Switching (ca.1980)**Not identified. Regimes do not coexist.**Modeling an Economic Time Series**• Observed y0, y1, …, yt,… • What is the “sample” • Random sampling? • The “observation window”**Estimators**• Functions of sums of observations • Law of large numbers? • Nonindependent observations • What does “increasing sample size” mean? • Asymptotic properties? (There are no finite sample properties.)**Interpreting a Time Series**• Time domain: A “process” • y(t) = ax(t) + by(t-1) + … • Regression like approach/interpretation • Frequency domain: A sum of terms • y(t) = • Contribution of different frequencies to the observed series. • (“High frequency data and financial econometrics – “frequency” is used slightly differently here.)**Studying the Frequency Domain**• Cannot identify the number of terms • Cannot identify frequencies from the time series • Deconstructing the variance, autocovariances and autocorrelations • Contributions at different frequencies • Apparent large weights at different frequencies • Using Fourier transforms of the data • Does this provide “new” information about the series?**Autocorrelation in Regression**• Yt = b’xt + εt • Cov(εt, εt-1) ≠ 0 • Ex. RealConst = a + bRealIncome + εt U.S. Data, quarterly, 1950-2000**Autocorrelation**• How does it arise? • What does it mean? • Modeling approaches • Classical – direct: corrective • Estimation that accounts for autocorrelation • Inference in the presence of autocorrelation • Contemporary – structural • Model the source • Incorporate the time series aspect in the model**Stationary Time Series**• zt = b1yt-1 + b2yt-2 + … + bPyt-P + et • Autocovariance: γk = Cov[yt,yt-k] • Autocorrelation: k = γk/ γ0 • Stationary series: γk depends only on k, not on t • Weak stationarity: E[yt] is not a function of t, E[yt * yt-s] is not a function of t or s, only of |t-s| • Strong stationarity: The joint distribution of [yt,yt-1,…,yt-s] for any window of length s periods, is not a function of t or s. • A condition for weak stationarity: The smallest root of the characteristic polynomial: 1 - b1z1 - b2z2 - … - bPzP = 0, is greater than one. • The unit circle • Complex roots • Example: yt = yt-1 + ee, 1 - z = 0 has root z = 1/ , | z | > 1 => | | < 1.**The Lag Operator**• Lc = c when c is a constant • Lxt = xt-1 • L2 xt = xt-2 • LPxt + LQxt = xt-P + xt-Q • Polynomials in L: yt = B(L)yt + et • A(L) yt = et • Invertibility: yt = [A(L)]-1 et**Inverting a Stationary Series**• yt= yt-1 + et (1- L)yt = et • yt = [1- L]-1 et = et + et-1 + 2et-2 + … • Stationary series can be inverted • Autoregressive vs. moving average form of series**Regression with Autocorrelation**• yt = xt’b + et, et = et-1 + ut • (1- L)et = ut et = (1- L)-1ut • E[et] = E[ (1- L)-1ut] = (1- L)-1E[ut] = 0 • Var[et] = (1- L)-2Var[ut] = 1+ 2u2 + … = u2/(1- 2) • Cov[et,et-1] = Cov[et-1 + ut, et-1] = =Cov[et-1,et-1]+Cov[ut,et-1] = u2/(1- 2)**OLS vs. GLS**• OLS • Unbiased? • Consistent: (Except in the presence of a lagged dependent variable) • Inefficient • GLS • Consistent and efficient**+----------------------------------------------------+**| Ordinary least squares regression | | LHS=REALCONS Mean = 2999.436 | | Autocorrel Durbin-Watson Stat. = .0920480 | | Rho = cor[e,e(-1)] = .9539760 | +----------------------------------------------------+ +---------+--------------+----------------+--------+---------+----------+ |Variable | Coefficient | Standard Error |t-ratio |P[|T|>t] | Mean of X| +---------+--------------+----------------+--------+---------+----------+ Constant -80.3547488 14.3058515 -5.617 .0000 REALDPI .92168567 .00387175 238.054 .0000 3341.47598 | Robust VC Newey-West, Periods = 10 | Constant -80.3547488 41.7239214 -1.926 .0555 REALDPI .92168567 .01503516 61.302 .0000 3341.47598 +---------------------------------------------+ | AR(1) Model: e(t) = rho * e(t-1) + u(t) | | Final value of Rho = .998782 | | Iter= 6, SS= 118367.007, Log-L=-941.371914 | | Durbin-Watson: e(t) = .002436 | | Std. Deviation: e(t) = 490.567910 | | Std. Deviation: u(t) = 24.206926 | | Durbin-Watson: u(t) = 1.994957 | | Autocorrelation: u(t) = .002521 | | N[0,1] used for significance levels | +---------------------------------------------+ +---------+--------------+----------------+--------+---------+----------+ |Variable | Coefficient | Standard Error |b/St.Er.|P[|Z|>z] | Mean of X| +---------+--------------+----------------+--------+---------+----------+ Constant 1019.32680 411.177156 2.479 .0132 REALDPI .67342731 .03972593 16.952 .0000 3341.47598 RHO .99878181 .00346332 288.389 .0000**Detecting Autocorrelation**• Use residuals • Durbin-Watson d= • Assumes normally distributed disturbances strictly exogenous regressors • Variable addition (Godfrey) • yt = ’xt + εt-1 + ut • Use regression residuals et and test = 0 • Assumes consistency of b.**A Unit Root?**• How to test for = 1? • By construction: εt – εt-1 = ( - 1)εt-1 + ut • Test for γ = ( - 1) = 0 using regression? • Variance goes to 0 faster than 1/T. Need a new table; can’t use standard t tables. • Dickey – Fuller tests • Unit roots in economic data. (Are there?) • Nonstationary series • Implications for conventional analysis**Integrated Processes**• Integration of order (P) when the P’th differenced series is stationary • Stationary series are I(0) • Trending series are often I(1). Then yt – yt-1 = ytis I(0). [Most macroeconomic data series.] • Accelerating series might be I(2). Then (yt – yt-1)- (yt – yt-1) = 2yt is I(0) [Money stock in hyperinflationary economies. Difficult to find many applications in economics]**Cointegration**• X(t) and y(t) are obviously I(1) • Looks like any linear combination of x(t) and y(t) will also be I(1) • Does a model y(t) = bx(t) + u(u) where u(t) is I(0) make any sense? How can u(t) be I(0)? • In fact, there is a linear combination, [1,-] that is I(0). • y(t) = .1*t + noise, x(t) = .2*t + noise • y(t) and x(t) have a common trend • y(t) and x(t) are cointegrated.**Pooling**Essentially the same as the time series case. OLS or GLS are inconsistent There could be no instrument that would work (by construction)**Nair-Reichert and Weinhold on Growth**Weinhold (1996) and Nair–Reichert and Weinhold (2001) analyzed growth and development in a panel of 24 developing countries observed for 25 years, 1971–1995. The model they employed was a variant of the mixed-fixed model proposed by Hsiao (1986, 2003). In their specification, GGDPi,t= αi+ γidit GGDPi,t-1 + β1i GGDIi,t-1 + β2i GFDIi,t-1 + β3i GEXPi,t-1 + β4 INFLi,t-1 + εi,t GGDP = Growth rate of gross domestic product, GGDI = Growth rate of gross domestic investment, GFDI = Growth rate of foreign direct investment (inflows), GEXP = Growth rate of exports of goods and services, INFL = Inflation rate. The constant terms and coefficients on the lagged dependent variable are country specific. The remaining coefficients are treated as random, normally distributed, with means βkand unrestricted variances. They are modeled as uncorrelated. The model was estimated using a modification of the Hildreth–Houck–Swamy method**Analysis of Macroeconomic Data**• Integrated series • The problem with regressions involving nonstationary series • Spurious regressions • Unit roots and misleading relationships • Solutions to the “problem” • Random walks and first differencing • Removing common trends • Cointegration: Formal solutions to regression models involving nonstationary data • Extending these results to panels • Large T and small T cases. • Parameter heterogeneity across countries**Cointegrating Relationships**• Implications: • Long run vs. short run relationships • Problems of spurious regressions (as usual) • Problem for existing empirical studies: Regressions involving variables of different integration. E.g., regressions of flows on stocks