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https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05978-1?error=cookies_not_supported&code=9fb2dc0c-b5fb-40d4-b389-cef79ea5db4c

Climate change has doubled the frequency of ocean heatwaves

Extreme heat events wreak havoc on marine ecosystems and will only get worse in coming decades.
d41586-018-05978-1_16039114.jpg

Ocean heatwaves will become more frequent and extreme as the climate warms, scientists report1 on 15 August in Nature. These episodes of intense heat could disrupt marine food webs and reshape biodiversity in the world’s oceans.

Scientists analysed satellite-based measurements of sea surface temperature from 1982 to 2016 and found that the frequency of marine heatwaves had doubled. These extreme heat events in the ocean's surface waters can last from days to months and can occur across thousands of kilometres. If average global temperatures increase to 3.5 °C above pre-industrial levels by the end of the century, as researchers currently project, the frequency of ocean heatwaves could increase by a factor of 41. In other words, a one-in-one-hundred-day event at pre-industrial levels of warming could become a one-in-three-day event.

“Marine heatwaves have already become more long-lasting, frequent, intense and extensive than in the past,” says lead study author Thomas Frölicher, a climatologist at the University of Bern in Switzerland. He adds that these changes are already well outside what could be expected on the basis of natural swings in Earth’s climate: the study’s analysis determined that 87% of heatwaves in the ocean are the result of human-induced global warming.

Going global

Scientists have studied heatwaves on land for decades. But it wasn’t until researchers faced episodes of extreme heat in the ocean in the past several years that they started paying more attention to the issue at sea. Those episodes included the massive warm water ‘blob’ in the northeastern Pacific Ocean that killed off sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Alaska and sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in California, and disrupted fisheries off North America from 2014 to 2015. They also included the massive 2015–16 El Niño that ravaged coral reefs around the world.

“The emphasis on marine heatwaves is really motivated by the recognition that the same kinds of extremes can happen in the ocean as on land,” says Noah Diffenbaugh, a climatologist at Stanford University in California. He adds that this latest study takes global perspective on these regional issues.

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Missouri passed a law that defines what is 'meat';   basically an animal byproduct.

Organizations like the Missouri chapter of the ACLU are challenging the law.    Of course so are companies that market and sell what they define as plant based 'meats';  e.g. soy burgers.

I believe those challenging the laws are hypocrites since to me all this law is doing is ensuring factual labeling of food.     E.g.  left-learning groups (and myself),  supported GMO labeling since this is 'ensuring factual labeling of food'.

As someone whose diet consist of plant based products like soy burgers and quorn etc... about 50% of the time (instead of meats),   I welcome factual labeling so I know what I'm consuming.

PS:  Yea,  I know that it was the Cattle Association that pushed politicians in Missouri to pass this law and that the association donate heavily to most of these politicians.    What really should have occurred,  instead of a state law, is that the FDA made this change.

  

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5 minutes ago, jamesjazzguitar said:

Missouri passed a law that defines what is 'meat';   basically an animal byproduct.

Organizations like the Missouri chapter of the ACLU are challenging the law.    Of course so are companies that market and sell what they define as plant based 'meats';  e.g. soy burgers.

I believe those challenging the laws are hypocrites since to me all this law is doing is ensuring factual labeling of food.     E.g.  left-learning groups (and myself),  supported GMO labeling since this is 'ensuring factual labeling of food'.

As someone whose diet consist of plant based products like soy burgers and quorn etc... about 50% of the time (instead of meats),   I welcome factual labeling so I know what I'm consuming.

PS:  Yea,  I know that it was the Cattle Association that pushed politicians in Missouri to pass this law and that the association donate heavily to most of these politicians.    What really should have occurred,  instead of a state law, is that the FDA made this change.

As I understood it, this law was also intended to differentiate between traditional meat (harvested from animals), and new, experimental lab-grown meat, meaning animal muscle/fat tissue grown via laboratory processes. That's a bit different from vegan/vegetarian plant-based meat substitutes, and lies more in the realm of the GMO "Franken-foods" category.

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49 minutes ago, LawrenceA said:

As I understood it, this law was also intended to differentiate between traditional meat (harvested from animals), and new, experimental lab-grown meat, meaning animal muscle/fat tissue grown via laboratory processes. That's a bit different from vegan/vegetarian plant-based meat substitutes, and lies more in the realm of the GMO "Franken-foods" category.

Great point;   I don't have enough of an understanding of the science behind 'Franken-meat' to know if there is enough of a difference for that to be separated from traditional meat but I agree that it 'lies more in the realm of GMO' and therefore it should be classified (labeled) separately.       But since it is 'meat' (an animal by-product)  it should be classified separately from plant-based products.     

There are also cloned animals;  here my understanding is that these animals are the 'same' as animals born traditionally and so is the meat that comes from them,   so there is no need to make a labeling distinction.   I.e. this is meat.   

 

 

 

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13 minutes ago, jamesjazzguitar said:

Great point;   I don't have enough of an understanding of the science behind 'Franken-meat' to know if there is enough of a difference for that to be separated from traditional meat but I agree that it 'lies more in the realm of GMO' and therefore it should be classified (labeled) separately.       But since it is 'meat' (an animal by-product)  it should be classified separately from plant-based products.     

There are also cloned animals;  here my understanding is that these animals are the 'same' as animals born traditionally and so is the meat that comes from them,   so there is no need to make a labeling distinction.   I.e. this is meat.   

I believe this "lab meat" is similar to the cloned animals. It's muscle tissue grown in "a petri dish" so to speak, without the "surrounding" animal. It's cloned from a real animal, though, at least originally, but I'm sure the goal is to clone each muscle or muscle group (or "cut of meat") from each other. 

This is similar to one of the Holy Grails of medicine: lab-grown replacement organs and other tissues, either cloned from the patient for ensured compatibility, or from a similar person who does not have a genetic abnormality that caused a patient's medical issues.

Food industry scientists also hold out a lot of hope for lab-grown meat, as it would please animal rights activists since no animals would have to be slaughtered, and starvation could be alleviated with an abundant food source that could be grown and shipped to wherever famine breaks out. Granted, the processes involved would be prohibitively expensive for some time, so the old fashioned way of doing things isn't going anywhere anytime soon, I wouldn't think. There would also be a very vocal part of the populace who would regard lab-grown meat as unhealthy by default, so lengthy testing would have to take place to ensure prolonged ingestion didn't come with some side effects.

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