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Warner Brothers Directors


mrroberts
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I just recently found this book "Warner Brothers Directors" at a flea market, its rather good. It offers some bio material on each director (19 are featured) and concentrates on the films they did for Warners. Anyone who has a question or comment about a director and a particular Warners film, I'll be happy to share what the book has to say about the subject.

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In general does the book provide details on how much control a director had verses, say, a producer? I always assumed that director under fixed termed contracts with a studio had less control than 'guns for hire' so called independent directors.

 

Also, like actors where directors ever placed on suspension? i.e. did some refuse to make a certain film or work with certain actors and therefore were placed on suspension?

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Good questions James, although I was hoping for more specific questions about a director and a particular film. I haven't read the book cover to cover, I planned more on using it as a reference guide. The working relationship between producers and directors is always ripe for conflict so it will depend on the specific film. I have read some of the chapter on Michael Curtiz, particularly concerning his very volatile relationship with Errol Flynn. Curtiz "discovered" Flynn and cast him in *Captain Blood* , a huge success and made Flynn an overnight star. But the two fought constantly , its amazing that they did so many pictures together. But both were under contract to Mr Warner , and all he wanted was films that made profit. And the Curtiz / Flynn combo certainly did that. I don't believe they wanted to work together often if at all. So suspension was the tool that the studio boss had to enforce that discipline. *The Private Lives of Elizabeth And Essex* had Curtiz, Flynn, and Bette Davis all together, and they all despised one another. ( Someone should make a film about the making of that film.) --- If I read about a specific incident of a director getting suspended I'll get back to you.

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mrrroberts, since Warners is my favourite studio, that sounds like a good book. It's my understanding that while Michael Curtiz and producer Hal Wallis got along fine together off the set, there was a lot of conflict between them while making their films together.

 

Do you get any impression as to how much of the final product that we see on film is to the credit of a strong willed producer like Wallis, as opposed to his house directors?

 

Curtiz, for example, had a strong inclination towards dramatics (he loved, if he could get the money for it from Wallis and Jack Warner, for example, to have high dolly shots, such as the street scene introduction to Angels with Dirty Faces or the high camera overlooking the banquet scene at Nottingham Castle towards the beginning of Robin Hood).

 

images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSdusllqwmr8JeljMjjgW0

 

Pure Curtiz: the opening dolly shot in Angels with Dirty Faces

 

Moments like that are pure Curtiz, along with assistance from favourite cinematographer Sol Polito. Still, the final products on screen are a collaborative effort. Do you get a feeling for how much Wallis had in the final say?

 

You mentioned that Curtiz "discovered" Flynn for Captain Blood. I assume that's what it says in your book. However, I believe that that is a commonly held fallacy. According to Warners production notes that author Robert Matzen studied for his book, Errol and Olivia, Curtiz, who had directed Flynn previously in a bit part, argued against the Australian being cast in that pirate adventure.

 

And it was Wallis who in notes lectured Curtiz for allowing Flynn to wear a lot of lacey outfits making him his character appear somewhat effeminate in the pirate adventure. It was a combination of Wallis and Curtiz (who barked and intimidated Flynn while making the film) but still gave him great, complimentary closeups that, with the actor's natural grace and command of attention, helped to make him a star.

 

But all those contributions that Curtiz made to Flynn's stardom would never have taken place in the first place if the Hungarian had had his way for Errol would NOT have been cast in the lead role. At least, according to Matzen's book.

 

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!

 

Don't let the smiles fool you. There weren't many from either Curtiz (on the right) or Flynn during the making of Captain Blood. However, there were plenty from both men after the film's release. Not only did it make a star of Flynn, but the success of this film raised Curtiz's stock at Warners immensely.

 

I think it's safe to say that Curtiz was regarded as Warners' premiere director during the late '30s and most of the '40s. Evidence of that is in the sheer volume of all the big studio projects that were handed to him.

 

But is that the impression that you get from your book, mrroberts, or is it still too early for you to come to any conclusion yet?

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>You mentioned that Curtiz "discovered" Flynn for Captain Blood. I assume that's what it says in your book. However, I believe that that is a commonly held fallacy. According to Warners production notes that author Robert Matzen studied for his book, Errol and Olivia, Curtiz, who had directed Flynn previously in a bit part, argued against the Australian being cast in that pirate adventure.

 

That's interesting. I've heard so many different variations of how Flynn was "discovered," it's hard to know what is true and isn't true. Perhaps the true story is an amalgamation of all the stories.

 

Flynn, in his autobiography (I believe), gives credit to either first wife Lili, or Jack Warner's wife for advocating Flynn for the lead. I can't remember which woman he gave credit to and unfortunately, I do not yet have my own copy of the book to refer back to.

 

In Buster Wiles' autobiography, that I'm reading right now, he states that Curtiz spotted Flynn walking through the Warner Brothers commissary and stated "That's Captain Blood!"

 

I've also heard the story of Jack Warner pressuring Curtiz into casting Flynn and I believe Errol himself, gives Warner the credit for giving him his big break.

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Tom, as I am typing this I am jumping around the book to find references to Hal Wallis. The impression I am getting is that Wallis was of a similar mind as Jack Warner, and Wallis strictly enforced whatever budget constraints were imposed on a particular film. On *The Adventures of Robin Hood* ., exec prod. Wallis apparently allowed assoc. prod. Henry Blanke a free hand , and Blanke was the man who brought Curtiz in to replace the original director, William Keighley. That film, of course, was a very big budget film, especially for Warner Brothers. As for Curtiz and Flynn; Curtiz used Flynn for a bit part in a film, was impressed with Flynn's presence and then gambled on using Flynn as the lead in *Captain Blood* . Robert Donat was the original choice for the role but was taken ill. Curtiz seems to have been a very domineering presence on the set, usually verbally and sometimes physically intimidating his actors, but shrewd enough to make full use of those actors talents ( reminds one of John Ford, eh) By the way, Curtiz was the one originally assigned to direct the Bette Davis film *Now, Voyager* , but he refused. I guess he didn't want any part of working with her again.

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Speed, I believe the real story of Errol Flynn's discovery is the undeniable presence he brings forth along with his physical appearance. He just looks like a movie star, doesn't he? Curtiz could see that and was great at casting the proper person for the role. Of course once that decision was made (casting Flynn for Captain Blood) who could have for seen how much friction there would be between the two men. But the film was a big success, and Curtiz was given higher status as a director and Flynn was a major star. And the Warner top brass saw a gold mine. So, like it or not, the two were to be linked for future projects. And I don't believe Flynn would have ever been willing to give Curtiz any credit for initially "discovering" and promoting the future star.

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mrroberts, if memory serves me correctly, Flynn gave credit to Jack Warner in his autobiography for casting him as Captain Blood. According to the Warners production notes on the film, according to Matzen's Errol and Olivia, Curtiz was not happy with Flynn's tests for the role, but knew better than to grumble too loudly about it to his bosses who were leaning towards the Australian over the others, probably by default. It sounds like it was a combination of Wallis and Warner that made the final decision to cast Flynn (over the objections that had quieted down from Curtiz).

 

Interestingly, Flynn was originally under consideration for the role of Hagthorpe, the slave-turned-gunner, eventually played by Guy Kibbee. Among those tested for the role of Blood were Brian Aherne, Ian Hunter (believe it or not) and George Brent. It was Curtiz and, to a lesser degree, Mervyn Le Roy who directed most of the tests, according to the production notes.

 

325838.1.jpg

 

Flynn Luck: to think that rookie Errol was originally up for the role of Hagthorpe, the part eventually played by pot bellied Guy Kibbee on the left, in Captain Blood

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For Robin Hood fans, it was William Keighley that directed the early Sherwood Forest scenes in the film (including Robin's initial meetings with Little John and Friar Tuck), as well as the archery tournament. It was Curtiz who directed the Nottingham Castles scenes, in particular the final duel.

 

The film is a surprisingly seamless blend of both directors' work, and Curtiz did do some retakes of some of Keighley's scenes after he took over as director. There were two versions of the famous balcony love scene between Robin and Marian. What we have in the final product is the Curtiz retake. There were some reports that Errol and Olivia, both of whom preferred working with Keighley, gave warmer performances in the balcony love scene originally shot by him. We'll never know, as that first version is apparently lost.

 

images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRRGrl88ubc3OyOMgAKGDo

 

It's the Curtiz version that's in the film

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>And I don't believe Flynn would have ever been willing to give Curtiz any credit for initially "discovering" and promoting the future star.

 

I was also thinking this as well. Regardless of the relationship between Curtiz and Flynn, there's no doubt that they made many fantastic films together, many of which are definitive of Flynn's career. As far as I can tell, it seems that the tension between Curtiz and Flynn was simply a clash of personalities and work styles. Curtiz sounds like he was very demanding and set in his ways; whereas, Flynn sounds like he was laid back and just went with the flow, except when he had a strong objection to something related to his appearance or role in the film.

 

I know he also didn't like Curtiz' work style in "The Charge of the Light Brigade" because his treatment of the actors and the horses. Flynn, a lifetime animal lover, secretly filed a grievance with the ASPCA and implored them to investigate the treatment of the animals on set. Errol complains about the filming of "The Charge of the Light Brigade" excessively in his autobiography. I wonder had his experience on the set of this film been better, whether he and Curtiz would still have such animosity between them. I feel that if they hadn't loathed each other on that film, things would have boiled over on another.

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Tom, there's something I want to point out here about reading the various accounts of the making of these films. Like researching any bit of history, we can get different stories so what is the truth? Case in point from the book that I am referencing; William Keighley was the director on *The Adventures of Robin Hood* for 8 weeks so a considerable amount of work was done before Michael Curtiz took over. The book states that Curtiz then reshot "much" of that footage and then completed the film. So the big question is, how much of the film is the work of which director? There's a similar accounting of my favorite film, *Mister Roberts* . By this book, Mervyn LeRoy replaces John Ford as director and LeRoy (with some retakes) did about 90% of the film. I have always been under the impression that the credit for directing was around a 50 / 50 split. So what is the reality here? To get back to Robin Hood, there's a scene where Errol embraces Olivia and kisses her. Curtiz wasn't happy with the take, he wanted Errol to be much more physically aggressive . "Don't hold her like she was a hot potato. Crush her! Maybe you break a rib! That is all right if we get a good scene". I don't think Errol liked that remark and I doubt that Olivia did either.

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I just watched the documentary on the Robin Hood Blu Ray and they stated that Keighly completed shooting all the scenes that took place in Sherwood Forest. These scenes were shot on location in a park in Chico, CA. He had shot some of the action sequences that took place in the forest as well. Producer Hal Wallis reviewed some of Keighley's footage and was unhappy with how the action sequences were shot, he thought they lacked excitement. Keighley finished directing the Sherwood Forest scenes and then the film shoot was moved back to the LA area. Curtiz took over from that point. He shot the remainder of the scenes, including action sequences like Robin Hood escaping from the gallows, the sword fight between Robin Hood and Sir Guy of Gisbourne, and the arrow contest between the Normans and "The Tall Tinker." He also added some extra Sherwood Forest scenes, like Robin Hood's men dropping from the trees, swinging on the vines and building the traps they'll use to capture Prince John's men. He also improved upon some scenes, including the aforementioned love scene between Robin and Maid Marian.

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>Tom, there's something I want to point out here about reading the various accounts of the making of these films. Like researching any bit of history, we can get different stories so what is the truth?

 

I agree. However, the reason that I placed a lot of emphasis upon Matzen's account is because he spent time in the Warners vaults reading the production notes on these films. Warners is a studio known for keeping meticulous paperwork on the production of their films (a boon for film scholars, if they can get access).

 

Matzen was reading the actual exchanges between Wallis and Curtiz and Warner, among others, during the makings of their films, including Captain Blood and Robin Hood. He read gripes and complaints and petty grievances reflective of the day-to-day progress of the films. He would read stuff like, as I said, Wallis complaining to the director about Flynn's lacey costumes in Blood, or Flynn complaining about his Robin Hood wig.

 

It was a Flynn complaint that changed the Robin Hood balcony love scene with Olivia. As originally scripted the two characters were to say their dialogue lying on a divan. Flynn felt awkward about it, though, and requested that their characters be standing. Associate producer Henry Blanke passed Flynn's request on to Wallis, who approved of the change, Matzen reported.

 

As a piece of minutia for you about Mr. Roberts, did you know that Ward Bond directed at least one scene in the interim period between Ford and LeRoy? Whether a Bond-directed scene is actually in the final film, I'm not certain. If it is, though, then, technically, the film had three directors.

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finance, any chance you recall your source for that statement about Grant being considered as Captain Blood?

 

He wasn't a Warners contract player and, to the best of my knowledge, none of the actors tested for the role were loanouts from other studios (Grant being with Paramount at the time).

 

In addition, Grant any never done a role like that before and hardly seems like likely casting, particularly as the lead in a big budget (for Warners) production.

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I believe it's mentioned in the Cary Grant bio I recently completed........... Grant, for about four years, aside from his pairings with Mae West, was being given bad roles in forgettable films. SYLVIA SCARLETT, and then TOPPER, eventually changed all that.

 

Edited by: finance on Feb 19, 2014 1:22 PM

 

Edited by: finance on Feb 19, 2014 1:24 PM

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I like the fact that we are getting the opportunity to reference these different sources, hopefully that will lead to a general consensus on these topics. Of course there will always be some different accounts and we may have to accept that. The book that I am reading from, *Warner Brothers Directors* is from 1978 by William R Mayer.

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>The Private Lives of Elizabeth And Essex had Curtiz, Flynn, and Bette Davis all together, and they all despised one another. ( Someone should make a film about the making of that film.)

 

Truer words were never spoken, mrroberts The making of Elizabeth and Essex was a major big star soap opera, so traumatic for Flynn that he devoted more pages in his autobiography to the making of this film than any other in his career. And they weren't pages of happiness, though, in the end, he was pleased that he had stood up to the dominating Miss Davis on the set.

 

However, aside from Flynn, Davis and Curtiz, none of whom, as you said, liking one another, it was also an extremely difficult film for Olivia de Havilland to make. Olivia had done an end run around Jack Warner to get the role of Melanie in GWTW, taking JL's wife, Ann, out to lunch for a womanly talk to tell her how much she wanted the role. JL acquiesced to allowing Selznick have de Havilland largely because of the pressure that his wife put on him to do so but it was something for which JL could not forgive Olivia.

 

Therefore, just to show her who was boss, Warner cast Olivia in a decidedly demeaning supporting role in Elizabeth and Essex. De Havilland shot Elizabeth and Essex on the Warners lot at the same time that she was travelling over to Selznick's for GWTW.

 

In addition to this, JL also put out the word that the E & E crew was to give de Havilland the silent treatment, no one was to talk to her unless it was directly related to shooting a scene. The only one on the Warners set who didn't give Olivia the cold shoulder was, predictably, Flynn. At the same time, though, neither did Errol provide her with a shoulder to cry on because he was going through a lot of nightmares of his own on that set, having to deal not only with Curtiz and Davis, but dialogue that was giving him problems.

 

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!

 

Olivia and Curtiz on the very unhappy Elizabeth and Essex set

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