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Daily Dose of Darkness #12: Calling on Four Million Dollars (Opening Scene of The Big Sleep)


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The opening scene of The Big Sleep sets up Marlowe as a well dressed, college educated man, but one who is experienced, who didn't like working within the DA's system. and is hardened.  He also isn't impressed with the wealth. The "nod" to Chandler's writing is the lovely "display" handkerchief in Marlowe's breast pocket. In the first sequence we can see that Marlowe has done his background work on the family and is prepared to meet his potential client, but is off putting about his own background. 

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Marlowe introduced himself at the door. We learn that he's 38, been to college, smokes, drinks brandy, is used to flirtatious women, honest, been fired for insubordination, which means he speaks his mind, regardless of the consequences. He is hardworking & easy to talk too.

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Being a fan of Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler, I find it difficult not to consider the written portrayals of their respective characters. Though Hammett took Spade and the mystery genre out of the British drawing room his detective was far more polished than Chandler's Marlowe. Perhaps because of this, my opinion of the two detectives, portrayed by Bogart, may be biased.


 


In this opening sequence Bogart establishes Marlowe as someone playful when he willfully flirts with Vickers, who he has just met. Also he's willing to be less formal. He removes his jacket, undoes his tie, and rolls up his sleeves while talking to a client. He's also very informal in speaking of himself.


 


In comparison, Bogart's performance as Sam Spade in MALTESE FALCON was more polished in his elocution, possibly because his clientele is of an upper class variety. I can't imagine Bogart's Spade removing his jacket and undoing his tie and shirt even with the permission of a client. 


 


THE BIG SLEEP, as did Chandler, took the private detective into a new, non-traditional role: that of street-wise tough. I think it appealed to the post-war crowd  The novel, though written before the war, appealed to an American audience that was tired and cynical. When the movie hit theaters, I imagine Bogart's performance as Marlowe struck a chord with veterans. It certainly struck a chord with later film noir detectives who were grittier, street-tough, and cynical. 


 


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Daily Dose of Darkness #12: Calling on $4 Million (Scene from The Big Sleep)

 

—How does this opening sequence establish Humphrey Bogart as Philip Marlowe? What do we learn about Marlowe in these first few moments of the film? 

Marlowe announces himself right away as the visitor to the Sternwoods. He has an appointment, so he is expected. He’s here to learn what his client, Mr. Sternwood, wants from him. He’s willing to be sidetracked briefly when he meets one of the Sternwood daughters, but then it’s back to business as usual.

—Do you see a difference in Bogart's portrayal of Marlowe compared to his performance as Spade in The Maltese Falcon?

I’m not sure there is much of a difference in Bogart’s acting. As Marlowe, he is starting his detective work by learning what he can of the client’s case by visiting the client. As Spade, we see him in his office, on his own turf. In the openings of both movies, he’s confident, and he’s willing to indulge in his vices (smoking and drinking as Marlowe, smoking as Spade). I think any differences can be attributed to the respective scripts/novels.

—In what ways can the opening of The Big Sleep be considered an important contribution to the film noir style?

The big difference that I see in the opening of The Big Sleep is the change in ambience. Gone are the shadows, working-class location, and lingering smoke of the Spade and Archer agency office. Marlowe is calling on money and his client’s house reflects wealth, light, air—and expensive orchids. Yep, the dialogue is snappy and everyone (including the daughter, but we don’t know that yet in the movie) has vices, some very serious vices, but The Big Sleep doesn’t start off like dark, smoky film noir; it starts off with a man who happens to be a private eye going about his day-to-day business that happens to be in a roomy, well-lit greenhouse.

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The Big Sleep is possibly my fav movie although Out of the Past would be the number 1 contender if I'd be allowed to promote a title fight... I really had to pay attention during both and still had questions ! It sounds like I should read the book so perhaps I'll look for a bookstore where I can stake out someone (G) and get my hands on a sweet 1st edition (of the 'book', of course) !

 

Yes, "Out of the Past" gets my vote for number #1 also. Great screenplay and sizzling screen chemistry between Robert Mitchum and Jane Greer -- with Kirk Douglas as the third in this torrid love triangle. Mercy! Convincing chemistry is what I've always felt was lacking in "Gilda." I love the film, and Rita is wonderful, but I could never see a woman like that obsessing over Glenn Ford. He was out of his league from the get-go. Now Burt Lancaster or Mitchum or Richard Widmark, definitely. They all have that edgy, dangerous quality the role needed instead of Ford's infantile pouting and tantrums. 

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Sam Spade or Philip Marlowe ~ In Dashiell Hammett’s “The Maltese Falcon” and Raymond Chandler’s “The Big Sleep” it’s all Humphrey Bogart.  I don’t think Bogart even gives the pretense of “acting.”  Of course, we do know he was able to take on a different character (or at least a character in different clothes) in “The African Queen.”  But who cares.  He’s Bogart and he’s unique.  The force of his personality brings us right into the story.  The aforesaid authors were lucky to have him bring their characters to life on the big screen. :)

 

So true. It's really enough just to be Bogart. The more I watch him, the more I want to. I definitely see why he snagged young Lauren. He's just too cool. Wish he'd been able to make more movies. :^(

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Chandler has already perfectly described his famous creation in his wonderful essay. Marlowe is indeed the best man in his world. Bogart naturally establishes the character of Marlowe as neither mean nor tarnished nor afraid. Like Spade he conducts himself as a professional. He presents his credentials: he

tells Gen. Sternwood that he is a college graduate and that is thirty-eight years old. He relieves himself of his coat only at the behest and the permission the general. He is properly courteous upon meeting one of the general's daughter. Marlowe speaks by invitation only. In daily dose sequence he is somewhat taken aback by the young daughter's glibness and forwardness. Yet Marlowe easily plays it off.  

 

However, unlike Spade, Bogart is no where as combative here as he was as Sam Spade in the "Maltese Falcon." Here he is not as quick to demand an eye for an eye or a tooth for a tooth. The streets of Los Angeles' suburbs give Marlowe a different edge compared with the alleyways of Hammett's that seem to give Spade a sharper and deadlier edge. Bogart embodies both roles, playing both of them brilliantly. 

 

Howard Hawks manages to realize the literary spirit and genius of Chandler's novel. The opening sequences of "The Big Sleep" are filled with dark compositions. Even the entrance to the general's house reminds one of a mausoleum. Because I have seen more than my share of the opening sequences of many a universal horror movie with the same dark, noir, underworld overtones.

 

Cornell Jones

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I've read all of Raymond Chandler's novels, so I feel as though I know Marlowe pretty well. I think Bogart portrays him best. He certainly has the dry wit that is evident in the novels and we see this in Marlowe's interaction with Carmen. He's not a man who is easily offended and will play off criticisms as a joke.  Marlowe is also a kind of "no holds barred" type of personality, hence is propensity to be insubordinate toward authoritative figures. I always felt Bogart was the type of man to play by his own rules, and I see this in other roles he plays, too, including in his portrayal of Sam Spade.

 

The initial scene is identical the opening of the novel. He is wearing the power blue suit (well dark) on film on his visit to the Sternwood estate. The music establishes the tone and mood in this scene. It goes from excitement to mysterious. The music had somewhat of a circular effect as though there will be a moment of confusion. The music chimes toward a more cute melody upon Carmen's entrance before going back to its mysterious melody and stopping at Marlowe's introduction to General Sternwood. The sense I get here (though I already know the story both in print and on film) is to establish the theme: things aren't always as they appear.

 

Inside the greenhouse, the stifling heat gets to Marlowe as if to foreshadow his being in "the hot seat" (as he always is with law enforcement). 

 

Yes, the greenhouse thing. It's really a claustrophobic place with the huge plants crowding so close. After seeing Carmen do her number on Marlowe, the scene in the oppressive heat of the greenhouse made me think of Carmen as the Venus Flytrap. And you're right, it signals more "heat" for our intrepid PI.  Also, I loved how the seen-it-all-before butler didn't even register surprise when he opened the doors and saw Carmen draped all over Marlowe like a serape.  ;)

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In Falcon Bogie is all skeleton and sinews …nervous …and just half a step ahead of the law. He is rather cynical and fatalistic. Here, in The Big Sleep, he is suave, relaxed, somewhat debonair, an educated almost equal to the man with the money. They are comfortable together. He is honest and frank without being rude or offensive…or belligerent as in the earlier flick.

            While I note these differences I also notice that in both films he is Humphrey Bogart. As such I was surprised to hear the line directed to him: You’re not very tall. Bogart wasn’t very tall but I don’t recall anything ever having been made of it in his other films.

                 Rather than mean and gritty nighttime streets in this film we are shown into the greenhouse with the orchid collection, hybrids no doubt, which reeks of heat, humidity and tropical decadence. And so the noir landscape is made broader…man lies, he cheats, and he steals …on every level of society. Because Marlowe is a detective we assume something is rotten in this family…we’ve met one of the “girls” All of this should serve as a forewarning of what’s to come.

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We learn much about Marlowe in just a few minutes through his words and mannerisms. He tells us he is 38, went to college and was fired from his job at the D.A.'s office. But we know even more by watching him. We see he is businesslike, unimpressed by the wealth around him. He can make a wisecrack casually roll off his tongue. ("How do you like your brandy?" he's asked. "In a glass," he replies.) He is respectful, honest and well prepared for the meeting, rattling off information about the man's family - and not holding back as when he tells the man his two daughters are "pretty and pretty wild." It makes him seem trust worthy and likable.

 

As to the differences in Bogart playing the two roles - I would have to watch both movies again, it has been a while) but Bogart is Bogart in all of his films. There are nuances of course, but we watch him because he is Bogart, not Spade, or Marlowe or Rick.

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Oddly enough, Bogart's Marlowe seems like a nicer guy than Sam Spade. He'll be tough when he has to but he is also professional, prepared and ready for anything, no matter the circumstances and surroudings. He will play along up to a point but is ultimately no nonsense. I agree with an earlier post about how the mansion is like something out of a Universal horror movie. And the General's line about orchids was very noirish.

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Right off the bat he introduces himself to General Sternwood's butler. "My name is Marlowe, General Sternwood wanted to see me."

Marlowe is polite. He has a sense of humor, which he shows to General Sternwood's daughter, who walks down the stairs, all legs and flirting. "good morning." he says

"you're not very tall." she says.  Marlowe tells her his name is Doghouse Reilly." 

He's more polite, and gentler than in his portrayal of Sam Spade, but still has an edginess, a sense of humor, and some smart alecky sarcsm.

This shines in a reply to General Sternwood asking, "How do you like your brandy?"

His reply "In a glass."

Some very Noir elements are, Private Investigator, Marlowe., Possible Femme Fatales as in the daughters mentioned, and one seen.(Carmen)Great writing and dialogue are very noteworthy contributions to Film Noir. Take the General talking to Marlowe about orchids.

"You like orchids?"

"Not Particularly."

"Nasty things, their flesh is too much like the flesh of men, and their perfume has the rotten sweetness of corruption."

Afterwards Marlowe goes on to reveal some m,ore things about himself, "I'm 38, I went to college, I could still speak English when my business demands. I used to work for the district attorney...." 

Marlowe also does his research, in revealing all he knows about the General and his family.

Great Noir work ,from a great Novel.

 

 

And after Carmen says, "You're not very tall," Marlowe doesn't miss a beat and replies, "Well, I try to be." Love that!

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The opening of The Big Sleep establishes Marlowe as being quick-witted, self-amused, confident in his control and not easily impressed.  The palatial interior of the Sternwood home, and the presence of a butler, does not make him feel out of place (similar to Dana Andrews attitude in the opening of Laura).  Although he has already established to the audience his identity, as told the the butler, Marlowe responds to Carmen's flirtatious ways by giving her an amusing alias, establishing that he is an even match, or superior, to her at playing games, and not shocked or distracted by her.  He offers criticism of her loose behavior by suggesting to the butler that he 'oughta ween her.  She's old enough".

He sees her as a spoiled child and treats her as one.

His demeanor changes with Mr. Sternwood; he is more to the point, but relaxed enough to take a drink when offered, and remove his jacket when suggested.  He is attentive to the details Sternwood is providing, and direct about his unflattering judgement of Sternwood's daughters.  Sternwood is also direct in describing his life of decadence, and his resulting impotence.

This establishes some layers of the characters as rich, spoiled, and reckless, which typically in noir leads to consequences.  Such situations are rich fodder for a shamus like Marlowe, but he'll need those quick wits and confidence to plow his way through this maze of a plot.  :-)

Based on this scene there is a lot in common between Marlowe and Sam Spade, as Bogart plays them.  Both confident and clever, but also amusing.  His toying with Carmen recalls the scenes where Spade is playfully making a fool of Wilmer, or amused at his false volatility towards Gutman.

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In Falcon Bogie is all skeleton and sinews …nervous …and just half a step ahead of the law. He is rather cynical and fatalistic. Here, in The Big Sleep, he is suave, relaxed, somewhat debonair, an educated almost equal to the man with the money. They are comfortable together. He is honest and frank without being rude or offensive…or belligerent as in the earlier flick.

            While I note these differences I also notice that in both films he is Humphrey Bogart. As such I was surprised to hear the line directed to him: You’re not very tall. Bogart wasn’t very tall but I don’t recall anything ever having been made of it in his other films.

                 Rather than mean and gritty nighttime streets in this film we are shown into the greenhouse with the orchid collection, hybrids no doubt, which reeks of heat, humidity and tropical decadence. And so the noir landscape is made broader…man lies, he cheats, and he steals …on every level of society. Because Marlowe is a detective we assume something is rotten in this family…we’ve met one of the “girls” All of this should serve as a forewarning of what’s to come.

 

Regarding the tall thing, it didn't appear to bother Bogart or anyone else. He had, as they say, a tall personality and lots of confidence. Yet I've read that Alan Ladd was about 5' 7" and extremely self-conscious about it--to the point of having to stand on a higher step, etc. so he wouldn't be dwarfed by other actors. Height was one reason Ladd made so many movies with Veronica Lake--she was only about 4'11". Luckily, they had chemistry, if a rather chilly sort. Apparently, Ladd had a very deprived childhood and even had malnutrition, which likely affected his growth. I doubt either Bogart or Ladd was ever cast alongside Sterling Hayden, who was about 6'4"!

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Oddly enough, Bogart's Marlowe seems like a nicer guy than Sam Spade. He'll be tough when he has to but he is also professional, prepared and ready for anything, no matter the circumstances and surroudings. He will play along up to a point but is ultimately no nonsense. I agree with an earlier post about how the mansion is like something out of a Universal horror movie. And the General's line about orchids was very noirish.

I loved that line about the orchids and thought something really similar! I've seen the movie before -- I've also read Chandler's book -- but I never noticed that line and its connection to noir until I started this course. 

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The film is master director Howard Hawks’ adaption of the novel by Raymond Chandler, with a screenplay written by famous screen play writers William Faulkner, Leigh Brackett Jules Furthman. This is one of my most favorite classic film.

The film opens with Private detective Philip Marlowe (Bogart) entering in the big mansion is summoned to the mansion of his new client General Sternwood (Waldron). The wealthy retired general wants to resolve gambling debts of his daughter Carmen Sternwood, owed to bookseller Arthur Gwynn Geiger. Charles Waldron appears only in the opening scene for a few minutes, but he gives very good performance as a General. As Marlowe is leaving, General Sternwood's older daughter, Mrs. Vivian Rutledge (Bacall), stops him. She has a suspicion about her father's real motive. She thinks her father has called for Marlow to find his young friend Sean Regan, who had mysteriously disappeared earlier. And when Bacall meets Bogart, She asks “So you're a private detective. I didn't know they existed except in books, or else they were greasy little men snooping around hotel corridors. My, you're a mess, aren't you?” Bogart answers “I am not very tall, either. Next time I'll come on stilts, wear a white tie, carry a tennis racket. And Bacall says “I doubt even that would help.”

In the final dramatic scene, the showdown between Bogart and gangster Eddie Mars (Ridgely). After that Bacall asks “what are you going to do?”. Bogart answers “Wait a minute. Let me do the talking, angel. I don't know yet. But I'm gonna tell them it would be pretty close to the truth. You'll have to send Carmen away. It's been done before. I'll have to tell your father about Regan etc. Bacall says “You forgot one thing, Me.” Bogart asks “What's wrong with you?” And Bacall states “Nothing you can't fix.” This is a very nice dialogue.

The original film was discovered several years ago, it was revised and cut to accommodate 18 minutes of new material. Since the original version was cut, the story became so convoluted even Chandler didn't know who committed one murder, but it is incredibly entertaining that no one has ever cared about the story. The Audience wanted to see the sparks between Bogart and Bacall. The film has glamour sex appeal and sharp dialogues between Bogart and Bacall.

The Big Sleep is a beloved movie of all movie buffs. However, some experts do not consider this film a noir. It is debatable among noir fans. Although, everyone agrees that it is a masterpiece film, and it contains one of Bogart’s great performances. But is it a noir? Some people say no. Although, majority of Noir fans consider it as Film Noir.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Comparing the performance of Bogart as Sam Spade and Phillip Marlowe, I believe that one of the differences that can be marked is that in The Maltese Falcon Bogart recently  acquired a leading role, while in The Big Sleep, He was already a star, so, Phillip Marlowe for the film, was made to the extent of Bogart, especially taking into account that his female counterpart was Lauren Bacall. With respect to Bogart, Chandler wrote in a letter, “ Bogart was "the genuine article", someone who could be "tough without a gun", and had "a sense of humor that contains that grating undertone of contempt." 

Of the two detectives, Sam Spade is more cynical, more brusque, more unpredictable. Phillip Marlowe, still be hard, can adapt to circumstances, act more intelligently, understands how to treat people and therefore work with each one of them.  The private detective, and the hero-style "Hard Boiled" is a fundamental part for the film noir, and  the philosophy that Raymond Chandler puts in the mouth of Marlowe also constitutes an element of noir.

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For those looking for different takes on actor's playing Chandler's Philip Marlowe, it would be difficult to find five more disparate interpretations and performances on one character than Bogart's in The Big Sleep, Dick Powell's in Murder My Sweet, Robert Montgomery's in Lady in the Lake, and Robert Mitchum's neo-noirs Farewell My Lovely and The Big Sleep, and Elliott Gould's The Long Goodbye.    

 

Montgomery's is somewhat skewed by the decision to shoot almost all his scenes in the first person POV, with the camera assuming the perspective of Marlowe.   (That's toyed with, briefly, by Hawks, at the very beginning of Bogie's The Big Sleep.)  It's highly questionable whether that device works well for an extended period of time on film, and not having Montgomery/Marlowe visible, on screen, most of the time cleared impacted his performance and our impression of the character.           

Ugh, hated that Robert Montgomery film, couldn't finish it...I think I blanked that out when it came to comparing the various Marlowes.

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In novels and in movies, the most effective way to reveal character is through good dialogue like that in the opening scene of "The Big Sleep." In the span of only a few minutes, viewers learn a lot about Marlowe and the other characters by how they speak to each other and interact. Many fans of crime fiction count writers who are excellent with dialogue - George V. Higgins, Elmore Leonard, James Ellroy, Richard Lange - among their favorite novelists. Good dialogue always makes a story memorable.      

I agree with your comment. The brief opening scene dialogue sets up the character of Marlowe and the people he will be dealing with. There's one piece of dialogue that is interesting to me looking back in history. Marlowe is college educated. In that time, college wasn't an expectation for the vast majority of people. The economic situation didn't make college a necessity to get a fair wage that would support a family. College degrees were for certain professions. I think when Marlowe says that he 'still can speak English" he is making sure that he is 'relate-able' to the Colonel.

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Bogart's portrayal of Marlowe seems far more blunt and to the point that Spade.  Much like Chandler's own novel, Marlowe gets to the crux of the issue and doesn't delve too deeply into the extra pieces. Spade tends to do this and prolongs the situation.  Although we know about as much in the first 4 minutes of The Big Sleep as we do in the first four minutes of The Maltese Falcon, Bogart's bluntness with Marlowe helps to establish the major point of the film, which is to investigate into the lives of the young women in question.

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Off topic, but can I just point out my favorite fact about this movie? When working on the script, the writers(including William Faulkner!) couldn't figure out who killed one of the characters, so they called the book's author Raymond Chandler. After getting irritated, Chandler read through the book and admitted he didn't know who killed the person either, so in the movie it's just never explained.

I am pretty sure  that Chandler knew who killed Owen, the chauffeur, but he did not want to admit that he had recycled material he wrote in four other short stories and released it as "The Big Sleep." In one of those four earlier stories, it is revealed who killed the chauffeur. 

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Polished and poised Marlowe and focused, determined Sam--Bogart has it in Spades!

 

Philip Marlowe, as portrayed by Bogart, is a polished, polite gentleman who has the manners to converse with the dignified General Sternwood but also a daring prowess to mingle with the flirting Carmen.  He has a direct manner of making himself comfortable when General Sternwood gives him permission and he answers the General's questions with the same directness.  Marlowe used to work at the District Attorney's office before he was fired due to his insubornation; in other words, Marlowe likes to be his own boss instead of following someone else's orders.

Bogart's portrayal of Sam Spade is more focused and determined; Spade pulls no punches and can be stern with a lady in deference to his loyalty to his dead partner.  I am certain Marlowe is just as focused, but I imagine he will "get his man" with more finesse.

 

The opening of The Big Sleep is essential to film noir given that it combined that formalism in a stylized manner and also shows that realism of a private detective doing his investigative work with dedication and honesty.  We do not know yet what the case is about, but we as viewers feel certain that Marlowe is his confident and cool style with solve the case and still have his suit impeccable despite the "dirtiness" of the crime.

 

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The nod to the first person narrative is that we hear Marlowe before we actually see him. The exchange with Carmen Sternwood shows that Marlowe is a smartass with little patience for people playing games. His remark to the butler "You ought to ween her, she's old enough" expresses his distain. During the interview with General Sternwood, we discover that Marlowe is 38, worked for the DA's office and was fired for "insubordination" which he seems to take dubious pride in. His knowledge of the Sternwood  clan demonstrates that he does his homework on potential clients. Bogart as Marlowe tends to do a lot more footwork in his case than Spade does in "The Maltese Falcon" and is more "in your face". Spade, for the most part, stands back and lets the participants dig their own graves. On the flip side Marlowe is more emotionally detached than Spade. You don't see Marlowe as passionate with Mrs. Rutledge the way Spade is with Brigid at the end of Falcon. Marlowe is also more casual a dresser than Spade. I can't see Sam Spade sweating in a greenhouse...He would have made the old man come to him.

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- How does this opening sequence establish Humphrey Bogart as Philip Marlowe? What do we learn about Marlowe in these first few moments of the film? 

-- Do you see a difference in Bogart's portrayal of Marlowe compared to his performance as Spade in The Maltese Falcon?

-- In what ways can the opening of The Big Sleep be considered an important contribution to the film noir style?

 

Other than being private detectives, Marlowe and Spade bear few resemblances. I always felt like Spade (Bogart) is smirking all the way through The Maltese Falcon.  He has a partner who is killed but cheats with partner's wife.  He seems amoral.  Not so with Marlowe, who seems smarter, (it's interesting to me he says he went to college) and more serious.  He wisecracks as Spade but is witty as Marlowe.  Marlowe doesn't take the bait with Carmen, who is obviously trouble, whereas Spade would.

 

This film doesnt do as much impressive lighting and shadows and camera angle work as some of the other films noiri; the noir is in the characters and dialogue and convoluted plot (I have watched it many times but really can't keep it straight).  I see Faulkner's influences in the writing.  The lines about the orchids--the General, who is rich enough to have what he wants, says he hates them because they remind him of corruption--why doesn't he just get rid of them?  Why does he choose to be surrounded by corruption, or does he choose to?  The thing I am seeing in these films is the ambiguity about whether man has free will or not.  The connections to Greek tragedy are becoming clearer to me.

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Ugh, hated that Robert Montgomery film, couldn't finish it...I think I blanked that out when it came to comparing the various Marlowes.

 

 

Don't blame you.  Didn't like Montgomery's Lady in the Lake, either; which is a shame.  It's a really good book.   

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