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Dr. Rich Edwards

Daily Dose of Darkness #30: Into the Darkness (Scene from Desperate)

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The shot of Burr's punch to Brodie's chops was as startling and effective as any scene in graphic modern films.

Fantastic clip to get the ol' ticker pounding.

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The fact that we don't actually see the entire beating, reminded me of the scene in The Set Up where Robert Ryan's character was beaten in the alley because he hadn't thrown the fight. Not seeing the beating makes it all the more harrowing.  I thought the light swinging back and forth, illuminating Burr's face on and off, really accentuated his menacing stance.  It was like he was taking sadistic pleasure in watching the beating.  The other effective shot was Burr's punching Brodie.  Watching Burr's fist pulling away was very effective.  It was like watching a cobra drawing back after striking its victim.  I've not seen in film but have put it on the list of movies to watch on Friday.

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The shot of Burr's punch to Brodie's chops was as startling and effective as any scene in graphic modern films.

Fantastic clip to get the ol' ticker pounding.

Yes, that was was very effective.  Sometimes I feel as though film makers today could learn a lesson from these old classic films regarding graphic violence.  This clip is just another example of how "less is more" can be so effective.  When we don't actually see the violence or when we don't actually see the cause of fear/terror in a sci fi or horror film, our imaginations can usually do a really good job of scaring us.

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The cinematography in this clip carries a great deal of meaning in it.  The entire scene takes place in a very dark, claustrophobic space.  It’s clear who has the power in this scene without a word being spoken.  Even though there is a large doorway behind the crooks, they are always between Steve and the door.  They are also always filmed from below, making them large and imposing, while Steve is always shot from above, making him seem smaller and more helpless.  He also spends most of the scene in a physically lower position than the others, emphasizing how much power they have over him. 

 

Even though we see very little of the beating, the scene is very effective in making us feel the beating along with Steve.  When the beating starts, the fact that the lamp starts moving back and forth makes the whole scene a bit disorienting.  The viewer can only catch glimpses of the violence, but from the sounds heard, it’s not difficult to picture what is going on.  The few extreme close-ups of the fist and the broken bottle serve to further disorient the viewer.  It is almost impossible to focus on either object when the frame is so tight on them. 

 

The faces of the crooks are never in full light, even before the lamp starts moving.  They are almost always at least half in shadow, while Steve doesn’t have shadows on his face, except when he is plunged into shadow.  The fact that the shadows are encroaching upon him emphasizes his perilous position.  The various aspects of the cinematography all work together to paint a clear picture of a man in a very dangerous, desperate situation.

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The fact that we don't actually see the entire beating, reminded me of the scene in The Set Up where Robert Ryan's character was beaten in the alley because he hadn't thrown the fight. Not seeing the beating makes it all the more harrowing.  I thought the light swinging back and forth, illuminating Burr's face on and off, really accentuated his menacing stance.  It was like he was taking sadistic pleasure in watching the beating.  The other effective shot was Burr's punching Brodie.  Watching Burr's fist pulling away was very effective.  It was like watching a cobra drawing back after striking its victim.  I've not seen in film but have put it on the list of movies to watch on Friday.

This scene reminded me of The Set-Up as well.  Beatings are always far worse when they are left to your imagination.

 

 Great point about the sadistic pleasure on Burr's face as well.  He stood and watched with almost a black face, but there did seem to be a hint of pleasure there as well.

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The room is dark, only an overhead light bulb glowing, as Walt (Raymond Burr) comes in the background is so dark that he is hardly visible. Just the faces of the gang members are seen through the key lighting, while Steve's upper body is highlighted by the chiaroscuro lighting. As Walt comes forward there is a fast punch to Steve's face, then the personal POV of the fist retreating, as Walt says: “I ought to kill you”.

 

The music throughout intensifies, rising in crescendo each time Steve his hit. One member has been picked up by the police, and Walter tells Steve that if Al burns--! Then he gets an idea, Steve who had nothing to do with the crime will confess to it. He grabs Steve's wallet and calls the police and reads off the license of the van they are looking for 1C002D.

 

Steve says they have nothing on him, and tries to leave, making the light start swinging and arcing as he is pushed down. Then out of the frame the thugs go to work on Steve. You can hear their punches, Steve's struggle and groans of pain. As this goes on the music gets louder and more frantic, taking on the beat of the punches. The camera is giving a low angle key light shot of Walt, impassive at first, then beginning to smile, another man who has been in the background comes forward and his face shows revulsion at what he is seeing.

 

After the beating Steve is still unwilling to go along, if I do turn myself in, I'm dead you might as well kill me now. Walt, smiling, breaks a bottle, “...bet your new bride is pretty”. Then tells him he will go to the police and while he does they will be holding his wife. Walt says to Steve, laying on a cot in the room, face beaten: “If Al...don't walk out ...by midnight your wife ain't going to be so good to look at”. There is a sadistic look in Walt's eyes as he says that.

 

From the music, the cinematic shots and lighting, and the dialog, you know that Steve and his wife will be Desperate to get out of this alive.

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This scene rivals anything from Tarantino or the Coen Bros in terms of sheer naked brutality. It starts from Steve's POV on the floor looking up at the two gangsters. From the rear a third one, Walt, approaches him, looming ever larger til he's in Steve's face fist-first - and in ours, too, the way Burr angles his fist straight at the camera. We feel with Steve.

 

The following interaction, as Walt suggests Steve turn himself in for something he didn't do in order to free Al, is shot in a more level, objective way so we see Walt's cold delivery and Steve's incredulous reaction. Then with the self-assured calmness of someone who knows he's in control, Walt steps to the phone to call the cops and implicate Steve in the robbery. This we see from the POV of a close-standing observer (not Steve) so we get a clear-eyed look at Walt's steely coldness.

 

Steve still has a bit of fight in him at this point and, outraged, goes for the door. This all is shot straight-on from behind to show Steve in relation to the four thugs lined up facing him and makes it clear what he's up against. They have no intention of letting him walk away. Again the fist. He falls back and sets the overhead lamp swinging.

 

The beating that follows is heard and felt more than seen. The horizontal, blurred movements of the men shot from the side and the fist thuds and the clattering of the dishes knocked off the table are sufficient to illustrate the crushing intensity, even as the two thugs pummel Steve out of the edge of the frame and we just see Walt and the fourth man watching. The off-and-on effect of the swaying light gives a feeling of disorientation and agitation.

 

Beaten, Steve sees one final way out - if they're going to hang a murder rap on him (I presume Al killed someone in the robbery) then it's the same if he dies right there at the hands of the thugs. But Walt needs him alive and he takes the brutality one step further by threatening Steve's wife. As if it needed it, director Mann and DP Diskant illustrate the threat by having Walt thrust the broken bottle straight at us through Steve's POV. It really makes for a heartstopping moment. And on that happy note I'm looking forward to seeing the movie soon!

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By choreographing the fight scene in Desperate (1947), director Anthony Mann and his cinematographer George Diskant were able to create a barrage of high contrast light and shadows over the entire set and all the actors, making a more intense if not limited view of not only the beating of Steve Randall (Steve Brodie) but the actions and reactions of all the characters in the scene.  Having so much of the screen images limited to brief illumination from the swinging light and just as quickly hidden by fleeting shadows we are forced to interpret the actions we see and imagine what it is that we can't see which is further enhanced by the brutalizing sound effects.  The result is a much more painful and terrifying experience happening on the screen within our minds than anything a film crew could have created using brightly lit actors, make-up and stage blood. 

 

It is an equally effective editing tool to inter-cut the various characters' point-of-view of the actions that are basically dark and obscure to the audience.  Action and reactions.  If the characters on the screen witnessing or participating in the assault are repulsed by what they see and are looking distraught themselves, the audience is further convinced this is an unusually cruel and savage beating.  Adding the low level point-of-view from the victims perspective, the four hoodlums take on a more menacing and threatening demeanor by towering over him.  The action is further intensified by having the characters and/or objects moving closer to the camera with a fist or a broken bottle completely filling up the screen.  For a noir in-your-face experience, this is as brutal as it gets! 

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-- Describe how this scene uses cinematography to accentuate the brutal beating of Steve Randall (Steve Brodie).


-- How do Mann and Diskant utilize different points of view to heighten the tension in this scene?


 


The noir lighting emphasizes the dark brutal nature of the gang and the hopelessness Steve's predicament.  


 


The choreography and scoring of the beat-down beginning with the extreme close up of the first punch POV to the face of Steve and continuing with the swinging drop light that erratically lights the beating action and then the faces of Walt Radak and his henchman in closeup as brutal impassive thugs watching is truly chilling.


 


Once Steve is subdued he is told to turn himself in (so that Radak's brother is turned loose), we see a bruised defiant Steve refuse in a close up.


 


Then we switch to another close up of the bottle that Radak breaks to emphasize again the points of broken glass that Radak threatens to grind into Steve's wife face if he doesn't cooperate.


These wildly varying POVs heighten the scenes intensity. 

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George Diskant does a fantastic job!  The swinging light source strobing on the characters gives a sense of unease.  What is happening in the dark that you can't see?  Its unsettling the way the camera angles suddenly change from one direction to another.  To have the fist and the broken bottle coming straight at the viewer is frightening. They all work together to heighten the tension.

 

I want to see this one!

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This scene begins as though we are Steve Randall. We, like Steve, do not have the privilege of being on eye level with any of the other men. Therefore, we are deemed less than, without authority, ultimately helpless. The delivery of the first punch continues to reinforce our position as the less than individual within this scene. We suffer that blow alongside Steve, as the clinched fist comes full force at the camera.

 

Following this initial act of brutality, the shots cut to and from low to high angle. This positions us in both Steve and the other men's points of view. Steve is situated on the floor, while the gang of criminals threateningly tower over him. Appearing small and helpless, Steve is shot in a high angle, which is in direct contrast to the low angle shots of the gang, making them appear powerful and in complete control.

 

Steve eventually rises to his feet, and is punched a second time. His hand hits the overhead light causing it to swing in a pendulum like manner. Here, Diskant intelligently heightens the beating using both light and shadows.

 

As the other men deliver the punches, darkness obscures the actual fight. The light never is centered directly over them. Mann and Diskant filmed purposely "around" the lighting in effort to have this scene play on the mind. Hearing a violent act committed, but being unable to actually see it makes the mind race. We automatically fill in the empty space of what we don't see with what we think is occurring. This is usually far worse than actually witnessing violence within a film. It's a psychologically effective technique Diskant and Mann implemented successfully.

 

As Steve is beaten off screen, the light continues to swing. It illuminates two of the criminal onlookers, and then shadows obscure their faces. This is one of the best parts of the scene. We watch them as they cruelly watch the helpless Steve with satisfaction. Diskant then uses the swinging light to reveal Steve's battered and bloodied face. One of the final shots in this scene is of a broken glass bottle, thrust right in our faces. The scene ends (broken bottle) as it begins (a punch) conveying "do what we say or else."

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This is one I want to see!

 

Such a tough and uncompromising scene, viscerally brutal and starkly lit, and there's one thing I know for sure: there's no doubting the Noir credentials of this!! The use of the swinging light is superb plunging the characters into black shadow and stark light, and the camera continually establishes the power relationships with high and low viewpoints. 

 

 

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Raymond Burr how could you????  One of those actors that always played the heavy early in his career.  His eyes and voice are made for the part/s, his look was a noir look.  I think he even had a shadow under his eyes as well, no lighting needed.  Love that he went on to other roles and we all had a chance to see him in other lighting.............How many films shown this summer of darkness had Burr in them?  King of the b movies and a great actor, his size and look commanded the screen.  But for me, it was his voice that  triggered anger somehow.  Never seeing him as a tough guy, but heavy in that he went  awry somehow and couldn't deal with society.  Even in this movie, he is the bad guy, but it is more implied by what could happen instead of his actual actions, but he is the one that thinks up the bad stuff, and his lines that are the most impacting.  Just like the lighting and the shadows, this actor walks in the scene and you know you are seeing the hard core noir that you expect, but also something more, whether you want to or not.

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What was it about Raymond Burr that said this actor would be great playing a sociopath?  "Red Light", "Raw Deal", "His Kind of Woman" and now "Desperate".  I'm sure there are others.  When he walks through the door and you hear his distinctive voice you know that there is a good chance the scene will be violent.  We see his face through the use of a swinging light during the beating.  It's coldness and the sounds of the beating produce graphic images in our minds, although the action is in the shadows.  The threat with the broken bottle is chilling.  Burr owns the scene.  This from the actor who would become a television icon playing Perry Mason.  After seeing his work in film noir, it's understandable why he originally auditioned for the part of Hamilton Burger.

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It's interesting to me that Anthony Mann is one of those directors who always seems to share credit for his films with the DP and other members of the production team.  There's a lot of people who believe that he did his best work with John Alton, and why not?  We know Alton is a genius.  But in the case of Desperate, the DP is Diskant, and they do a great job, as evidenced in this terrific scene.  The common link in the Mann films is Mann, even though he worked with different DPs.

 

Most of us go from knowing the actors and actresses, to knowing the directors, and if you've taken this course, to knowing the DPs. Film Noir criticism is sometimes described as being trans-auteur, since Noir is a style that goes beyond a single director.  Is there a French name (like noir, auteur, etc.) to describe the importance of the DP, lighting and art directors?    Whenever to the subject is Mann, the role and importance of the rest of the team always seem to get mentioned.  Is there a particular reason for this, or does Mann just suffer from the trans-auteur nature of Film Noir?

 

Mann is a very interesting character.  He was raised in a Utopian community (Lomaland) of Theosophists in southern California, and left there by his parents when his Father became ill.  When he was 14, some relatives came and got him out.  Until that time, he had never seen money or eaten meat.  While he lacked some experiences that the rest of us take fro granted, there was no shortage of culture, and he acted in innumerable plays while still a child.

 

He was brought to Newark NJ (now, there's a contrast to a Utopian community in California!!) and went to Central High School, where he participated in many of the school's dramas.  Interestingly, alongside Dore Schary, who would later lead production at MGM.  That connection may have played a part in how Mann later came to MGM to make Border Incident (with Alton).  The violence and savagery of the scene in that film where the George Murphy character is killed could actually out-savage this scene from Desperate. 

 

Whether the characters wore cowboy hats or fedoras, and no matter who the DP, Anthony Mann was one of the great directors. 

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The beating scene in this clip was very effective because it did not focus on the landing of the blows, but rather on the sounds of the beating and the faces of the men watching it. The swinging overhead lamp casting ghoulish shadows was the cherry on the top, as it added to the mood, along with the non-diegetic music.

 

This was much more effective than any scene that would have focused just on the beating itself. One reason for this is that it allows us to use our imaginations, and we can imagine the worst things! Another reason is that it avoids showing us yet another choreographed fight scene. Fight scenes had been seen in so many movies that they were already cliches (not to be refreshed until the kung fu movies decades later, which showed Western audiences "new" types of punches and kicks for choreographing fights).

 

The desire to avoid cliche scenes was brought to my attention in another online film course that I took last year. That course focused on how the technologies used in making a movie (silent, black & white, or color) played such strong roles in determining how films could be made. In this course, we have learned how the restrictions of the Motion Picture Production Code played such a strong role in determining what films could be made during the 1930-1968 time period, and for me it is fascinating to see how Directors have come up with creative ways to get around restrictions. Ironically, in many cases, it seems that having to come up with ways to get around restrictions results in better story telling! 

 

The first example I saw of a Director coming up with a creative way to avoid a cliche was in the 1920 silent film, The Docks of New York. The establishing shot wanted to show that a freighter had just steamed in to the docks of New York. But so many films had already showed freighters docking - how could this be shown in a fresh way? The Director solved the problem by avoiding the often-used approach of showing a freighter passing well-known landmarks and going through a harbor to a dock. Instead, an overhead shot was used of a giant anchor dropping straight down into the water. One could almost "hear" the splash when it hit (except of course, one couldn't hear it, as this was a silent movie, ha ha). 

 

But I digress. In this clip, the fight scene avoids being a cliche and is thereby most effective. 

 

As a side note, it has been interesting to see Raymond Burr playing a heavy (no pun intended), as he does in this movie and in His Kind of Woman, which we watched last week. I came to know of Raymond Burr by watching his Perry Mason television series when I was a teen. I therefore thought of him as a "good" guy and it has been a revelation to discover that he was also good at being a "bad" guy.

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This clip is a perfect example of how the old saying that "there's nothing in the dark that isn't there in the light" is not correct. Because our deepest fears lie in the dark. We see little or nothing of the beating and our imagination is able to take over. The swinging like gives us only glimpses but the sounds of the beating never fade. Great Foley work there. Like others have posted here cinematographers today could take a lesson from this clip on how to show violence.

 

The point of view was also amazing. The punch that Burr threw was fantastic and the low angle shots made of Burr and his cohorts seem even more ominous. I agree with other posters that the bottle coming right towards the camera was very threatening. I haven't seen this one before but I definitely want to watch it now.

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This scene’s most predominant feature is the cutting between the faces of the characters in the scene.  As the light shines on each of the characters, we see the arc of the swinging light illuminate first one part of a face and then another as a smooth panning motion completes the shot.  Particularly effective for me was the cutting to tighter shots as the light swung about the room and shone on the characters' very expressive faces. Also I really came to notice how the actual beating was happening out of view but the sound was clear and present at all times, even the droning music accentuated the unseen pounding Brodie was getting; although I must say, he looked pretty good when Burr approached him and threatened to disfigure Mrs. Randall/Brodie.

Throughout the clip we see different views of the characters in reaction shots to the action and this is very effectively bringing across the menacing vicious tension of the scene.  After each change of point of view, we wonder how much worse will this beating will get, but no resolution is reached until the very end of the clip when Brodie finally acquiesces to Burr’s demand.

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Wow!! Well, I am gobsmacked.!

 

Noir all around. Heavy and dark. :) !

 

However, I will say that this clip illustrates, in no uncertain terms, the value of black and white photography.  The impact of this subject could never have been achieved as well in a color medium.

 

The teasing and tweeking of the imagination is a key factor in what makes us, the viewers, become involved in a film. The mind can play tricks and the unseen can be extremely powerful; for example, when the overhead light swings to the completely dark screen, we know Steve is being brutalized because we can hear it. When the visual aspect is taken away, our imagination kicks in; we become vulnerable, helpless and trapped. We are exposed only to the sounds which accompany the beating...struggles and fists making contact. The viewer has to rely on another sensory device...the ear. Neurologically, all our sensory organs coordinate with each other in order to supply us with the necessary messages needed to interpret our surroundings. When one of those sensory organs is eliminated or diminished, we must depend on the remaining sensory organs to give us information. Our eyesight should never be taken for granted (just a sidebar).

 

Raymond Burr never ceases to amaze. Here, he has the range and capability to immerse himself in his role. He stays so completely in the moment as to be almost scary. He never flinches!

 

I'm in on this one. I have never seen Desparate so I am eager to see it. I have a feeling it will not disappoint.

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Poor Raymond Burr, he just wants his hiests to go according to plan.  A couple of things that make this a stand out scene. First is the fact you never see the blows you can hear them and some how that always makes it worse. The other is the swinging over head light and the way ii rotates through the scene causing light and shadows through out the end of the scene,

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– Describe how this scene uses cinematography to accentuate the brutal beating of Steve Randall (Steve Brodie).

 

Walt’s only direct participation in Steve’s beating is the surprise punch he throws as he walks up to the seated Steve early in the scene.  The extreme close-up of Walt’s fist as he follows through on the blow brings the brutality right into the face of the viewer.  When Steve tries to leave after Walt’s phone call to the police, Shorty stops Steve with a punch that causes Steve’s arm to start the overhead light to swinging like a pendulum.  We see two or three punches from Shorty on screen before the beating moves into the darkness off screen.  We witness the beating aurally through the sound effects on the soundtrack and visually through the reaction shots of Walt and the thug in the pinstripe suit with the matchstick in his mouth.  Meanwhile the swinging lamp causes light and shadow to play over their faces in a slow rhythmic pattern that accompanies the tempo of the beating we hear Shorty administering to Steve.  Paul Sawtell’s musical score swells to a climax just as the light reveals the thug with the matchstick in his mouth glance over to Walt as if to see when Walt is going to call a halt to the beating.  Shortly thereafter Walt says, “Hold it!” and the physical beating is over.  After that the scene turns to psychological violence as Walt threatens to disfigure Steve’s wife if Steve does not agree to confess to a crime he did not commit.  If one wants to consider this psychological threat as a part of beating Steve into submission, then we have to consider the extreme close-up of the broken bottle thrust into Steve’s face as another instance of using noir cinematography to accentuate the violence against Steve.  As with the close-up of Walt’s fist at the beginning of the scene, the close-up of the broken bottle brings home the horror of the threat to the viewer, who has nothing else to focus on in the frame except the jagged glass reflecting little flashes of light in the darkness.  The only thing missing here is 3-D!

 

Wow!  As Prof. Edwards has already pointed out in his curator’s note, this scene is one of the high points of Expressionism and formalism in American film noir.  Over the course of the last two months, I have become a huge fan of John Alton and Nicholas Musuraca and the crucial role their brand of cinematography plays in creating a first-rate film noir.  It looks as though I am going to have to start paying more attention now to George E. Diskant.  He knocks it out of the park here.

 

– How do Mann and Diskant utilize different points of view to heighten the tension in this scene?

 

Most of the shots of Walt and his thugs are low-angle shots that approximate Steve’s point of view, even if his head is sometimes seen in the frame.  Most of the shots of Steve are high-angle shots that approximate the point of view of Walt looking down on the person he is brutalizing physically and mentally into submission.  In particular, the extreme close-ups of Walt’s fist and the broken bottle he holds up to Steve’s face can be considered shots from Steve’s point of view.  These alternating points of view underline the power relationships in the scene and thus heighten the tension in the confrontation being represented.

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This clip is a perfect example of how the old saying that "there's nothing in the dark that isn't there in the light" is not correct. Because our deepest fears lie in the dark. We see little or nothing of the beating and our imagination is able to take over. The swinging like gives us only glimpses but the sounds of the beating never fade. Great Foley work there. Like others have posted here cinematographers today could take a lesson from this clip on how to show violence.

 

The point of view was also amazing. The punch that Burr threw was fantastic and the low angle shots made of Burr and his cohorts seem even more ominous. I agree with other posters that the bottle coming right towards the camera was very threatening. I haven't seen this one before but I definitely want to watch it now.

I agree wholeheartedly with you regarding how violence is shown in today's films. Gratuitous violence achieves nothing and is far from entertaining. With what is happening in the world today, I suspect most people would "get the picture" without all the blood and gore. We are exposed to this sort of thing way too much from Hollywood. This is why your comment about current filmakers learning a lesson from these movies that we are studying rings so true. Didn't mean to get political, sorry. Guess I am sensitive to this. Great post!

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This is a film I haven't seen before but I immediately recognized noir elements in the shadows and lighting. The swinging overhead light gave me a feeling of danger and menace as it emphasized the faces of the tough guys. They meant business and we heard every punch until the lights went out. I haven't figured out why so I'm excited to see the full movie.

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HOLY CRAP...I WON'T BE WATCHING THIS ONE!

 

It's so ironic that Raymond Burr who when he was bad, HE WAS REALLY BAD, ended up playing Perry Mason and Robert T. Ironside when he began SOOOOOOOOOO "BADLY".

 

We saw him in "His Kind of Woman" and he was nasty.

 

This is probably a very good noir...just the opening made my skin crawl.

 

No thank you, I'm not watching it.

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