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Howlin' at the Moon


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The Werewolf in Film


The earliest werewolf film appears to have been The Werewolf (1913) from the Bison Film Company. Unfortunately, all prints are thought to have been destroyed in a fire in 1924. The earliest existing werewolf film is Wolf Blood (1925) starring George Chesebro. The Werewolf (1932) a.k.a. Haunted People from Germany was next.


The first true classic werewolf film, though, was 1935's Werewolf of London from Universal. Henry Hull starred, with able support from Warner Oland. The great make-up artist Jack Pierce did the werewolf fx, establishing the dominant look of the movie wolfman for the next several decades: a humanoid shape, usually sporting long-sleeved shirt or coat, and trousers, with hairy, clawed hands and feet, and a hairy, fanged face, usually with a darkened or slightly altered nose.


Next came arguably the greatest screen lycanthrope, Larry Talbot as played by Lon Chaney, Jr. The Wolf Man (1941).  Also from Universal, it helped establish the screen rules for werewolves that would be followed for the next few decades. The tremendous supporting cast includes Evelyn Ankers, Claude Rains, Maria Ouspenskaya, Warren William, Ralph Bellamy, Patric Knowles and Bela Lugosi. 


The next several major werewolf appearances would be the further adventures of Larry Talbot (Lon Chaney Jr. returning for each) in the increasingly silly/fun Universal films: Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943), House of Frankenstein (1944), and House of Dracula (1945), until finally going full comedy in 1948's mash-up classic Abbott & Costello Meet Frankenstein.


Other 40s werewolf titles include Columbia Pictures' Cry of the Werewolf (1944) starring Nina Foch, Stephen Crane, Osa Massen, Blanche Yurka, and Barton MacLane; and She-Wolf of London (1946), from Universal, and starring June Lockhart and Don Porter.


The next "major" werewolf film would be a real howler, 1956's The Werewolf from Columbia Pictures and B-film producer Sam Katzman. Steven Ritch stars as a poor soul transforming into the title creature thanks to some experimenting by evil scientists. In the 50s, even the supernatural was turned into sci-fi.


Next up was the camp drive-in classic I Was a Teenage Werewolf starring a young Michael Landon as a high schooler turning into a frothing, hairy beast, again thanks to the meddling of a scientist (Whit Bissell). This was one of the first werewolf films to draw a parallel between lycanthropy and puberty/sexual awakening. There have been many papers written on supposed subtexts, but I won't get into that here. Just know this is great 50s fun. American International Pictures (AIP) released it. Vladimir Sokoloff appears as a janitor; he had co-starred in 1932's The Werewolf.


The next big player in the cinematic horror business were the folks across the pond at Britain's Hammer Film Productions. In 1957, they made a fine effort with The Curse of Frankenstein. The success of that picture led to 1958's Horror of Dracula, which was an even bigger hit. They would remain a major player for the next decade and a half, and it wasn't long before they made their contribution to the world of film lycanthropy with 1961's The Curse of the Werewolf. A young Oliver Reed stars as a nobleman who has been cursed to transform into a murderous creature. This film has all of the Hammer hallmarks: fine production design, bright colors (including the red red blood) and heaving bosoms. Also that year saw the release of another Euro-wolf feature, the Italian-Austrian co-production Werewolf in a Girl's Dormitory.


There would be a lengthy lull in movie werewolves, until after the fall of the movie production code, and the initiation of the rating system, making more permissive films possible. The legend of the werewolf was always trickier to bring to the screen, due to the inherent violence of the creature, and the difficult effects involved in depicting the beast without it looking too goofy. The relaxed restrictions meant that the subsequent films became much bloodier, but it would be a bit before the effects could catch up. Most of the werewolf films of the early 70s were goofy exploitation offerings such as Werewolves on Wheels (1971) (werewolf bikers), The Rats are Coming! The Werewolves are Here! (1972) (from Z-grade auteur Andy Milligan), The Boy Who Cried Werewolf (1973), and Werewolf of Washington (1973) (an attempted political satire with Dean Stockwell). The U.K. gave us The Beast Must Die (1974), a unique whodunit from Amicus Pictures with Calvin Lockhart, Peter Cushing, Charles Gray, Anton Diffring, and a young Michael Gambon. 1975 saw the release of British Tyburn Productions' Legend of the Werewolf, also with Peter Cushing, this time joined by Hugh Griffith and Ron Moody. Finally, also in 1975, came Legend of the Wolf Woman, a completely crazed Italian werewolf film starring Annik Borel that has gone on to a sizable cult following.


Another source for werewolves in the 70s was the small screen. The supernatural was very popular during this decade, and there were countless ghost/vampire/psychic/satanic stories being turned out weekly. Notable tv movies of the hairy kind include Moon of the Wolf (1972),  a bayou mystery with David Janssen, Barbara Rush, Bradford Dillman, Geoffrey Lewis and Royal Dano. Scream of the Werewolf (1974) stars Peter Graves as an investigator trying to solve some possibly lycanthropic murders, co-starring Clint Walker and Jo Ann Pflug. 1975 saw the ridiculous Werewolf of Woodstock, produced by Dick Clark, about a farmer (Tige Andrews) who seeks hairy revenge on them dern hippies. Also with Michael Parks and Meredith MacRae. Finally there was Death Moon (1978) , with Robert Foxworth taking a vacation in Hawaii and turning into a werewolf at night. Co-starring France Nguyen, Joe Penny, Dolph Sweet, Charles Haid and Debralee Scott.  

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3 of my fav wolfies were (oddly) all in 1981: "Wolfen", "The Howling" & "American Werewolf in London"


& I'd love a chance to see the early films you mentioned first.

Yeah, I was going to discuss those three in my next section. 81 was the banner year for werewolf movies.

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The Werewolf in Film, part 2: Werewolves in the FX Era


By the late 1970s, werewolf films were few and far between. The level of quality was best exemplified by the z-grade drive-in fare of Earl Owensby and Worth Keeter's 1979 offering Wolfman, with substandard scripting, production design, and the same tired wolf man look from 45 years ago. It wasn't until 1981 that werewolf films would truly reach their peak.


The first released was The Howling, from Avco Embassy, and directed by Joe Dante with a script by John Sayles and Terence Winkless, based on the novel by Gary Brandner. The story, about a traumatized TV reporter who goes to a small village to recuperate, only to learn that the villagers are all werewolves, is full of humor and clever nods to fear films of the past. The cast includes Dee Wallace, Christopher Stone, Dennis Dugan, Belinda Balaski, Slim Pickens, Patrick Macnee, John Carradine, Robert Picardo,  Kevin McCarthy, Dick Miller, Kenneth Tobey and Elisabeth Brooks. The real star of the film though is Rob Bottin, the make-up effects genius behind the amazing creature work. This was the first film to successfully depict the now-common werewolf look of a large, vaguely humanoid creature, completely covered with hair, with a head like a wolf (long snout, large up-swept ears), and often featuring sway-back dog legs. It was successful at the box-office, so it went on to spawn a large number of increasingly odd, ridiculous sequels: Howling II: Your Sister Is a Werewolf (1985), Howling III: The Marsupials (1987), Howling IV: The Original Nightmare (1988), which was basically a remake of the first film, this time sticking closer to the source novel, Howling V: The Rebirth (1989), Howling VI: The Freaks (1991)The Howling: New Moon Rising (1995), and finally The Howling: Reborn (2011).


Next up in 1981 was Wolfen, from Orion Pictures, directed by Michael Wadleigh and based on the best-selling novel by Whitley Strieber. Albert Finney and Diane Venora star as investigators in NYC searching for a vicious killer who may be a werewolf. I won't spoil the eventual revelations regarding the culprit, but I will say it's unique. Also with Gregory Hines, Tom Noonan, Edward James Olmos, and Dick O'Niell.


In August of 1981 came An American Werewolf in London, from Universal and written & directed by John Landis. A pair of American buddies are hiking across England when then get savagely attacked by a monstrous wolf out on the moors. One dies, while the other survives, although cursed to become a wolf himself on the next full moon. David Naughton stars as the helpless protagonist, while Griffin Dunne is terrific as his murdered friend who keeps appearing to him in increasingly worse states of decomposition to warn him about his upcoming transformation. Also featuring Jenny Agutter, John Woodvine, Brian Glover, and Frank Oz. The script is funny, and the plot is fast moving, and when the horror kicks in, it's brutal and gory. The astounding effects were done by Rick Baker, and the work was so revolutionary that the Academy finally created the Best Make Up Oscar to award him. A sequel didn't come until 1997, with the totally unnecessary and dreadful An American Werewolf in Paris, produced by Disney through their Hollywood Pictures division, starring Julie Delpy and Tom Everett Scott.


Finally in 1981 came director Larry Cohen's Full Moon High, an awful comedy starring Adam Arkin, Ed McMahon, Kenneth Mars, Elizabeth Hartman, and Alan Arkin. A high school student becomes a werewolf, and much stupid wackiness ensues. This formula would be repeated, but more successfully, with 1985's Teen Wolf, featuring TV star Michael J. Fox who becomes a basketball-playing werewolf. This was followed by 1987's Teen Wolf Too, with TV star Jason Bateman. Finally, one more dopey werewolf comedy was 1989's My Mom's a Werewolf, with Susan Blakely and John Saxon.


The next noteworthy werewolf film was 1984's The Company of Wolves, a UK production from ITC and directed by Neil Jordan. This adult re-working of the Little Red Riding Hood fable has a lot of style, and features a top-notch cast, including young Sarah Patterson in the lead, with Angela Lansbury, David Warner, Brian Glover, Stephen Rea, and an uncredited Terence Stamp as the Devil. 


1985 saw the release of Silver Bullet, the highly-anticipated film version of Stephen King's Young Adult novel "Cycle of the Werewolf". The film from Paramount Pictures and producer Dino De Laurentiis failed to live up to the hype, but it does have some modest charm. Megan Follows and Corey Haim star as brother and sister who get involved with some local killings that are the work of a werewolf. Gary Busey, Everett McGill, Lawrence Tierney, James Gammon and Terry O'Quinn. The creature itself is of the tall, wolf's head variety and the effects by the usually dependable Carlo Rambaldi are at turns ok and silly.


The last couple of notable werewolf appearances in the 1980's came as part of an ensemble. In 1987's fun and better-than-expected film The Monster Squad, Jonathan Gries plays a Larry Talbot-esque wolf man who, along with Dracula, Frankenstein's Monster, the Mummy, and a Black Lagoon-like creature, attack a typical suburban American town, only to run into a gang of monster-fighting children. In 1988's Waxwork, a sinister wax museum can transport unwitting victims into real-life re-enactments of it's various horrifying displays, including one with John Rhys-Davies as a wolf's head lycanthrope.


Most werewolf films of this period, from the late 1980's through the 1990s, were substandard sequels to earlier films, but there were a few notable titles. Full Eclipse (1993) was first shown on HBO before becoming a minor cult film on video. Anthony Hickox (Waxwork) directed this story of a special squad of LAPD officers who are also werewolves. Starring Mario Van Peebles, Patsy Kensit, Bruce Payne, Anthony Denison, Jason Beghe and Paula Marshall. 


There was a minor A-list classic monster boom in the early 90s, thanks to the high-profile succes of Francis Ford Coppola's garish production of Bram Stoker's Dracula in 1992. Soon after, it was announced that Tom Cruise would star in Interview with the Vampire, and  Robert De NIro and Kenneth Branagh were teaming on  Mary Shelley's Frankenstein. Following this trend was respected director Mike Nichols and megastar Jack Nicholson teaming for 1994's Wolf, from Columbia Pictures. A "biting" satire of aging in the corporate world, the film suffers a bit from a tonal uncertainity, but the fine cast is worth checking out, and bits work here and there. Also with Michelle Pfeiffer, James Spader, Kate Nelligan, Christopher Plummer, Richard Jenkins, David Hyde Pierce, Eileen Atkins and Ron Rifkin.


1995 saw a pair of D-list films of note: Project: Metalbeast, with Barry Bostwick and Kim Delaney, brings us the 12-year-old's dream mash-up of a werewolf cyborg. Werewolf, starring Richard Lynch, Joe Estevez and Jorge Rivero, was a real turkey, released virtually direct-to-video in the U.S., and later a favorite on Mystery Science Theater 3000.


The final 90s werewolf film of note is Bad Moon (1996), from Morgan Creek and Warner Brothers, written and directed by Eric Red. Michael Pare stars as a werewolf who's terrorizing the lives of his sister (Mariel Hemingway) and her young son (Mason Gamble). It's a simple B-movie, but well executed for the most part, and the creature effects are well done.


Werewolves would remain fairly uncommon on the screen until the beginning of the next decade when a number small films and major franchises breathed new life into this flea-bitten genre.



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The Werewolf in Film, part 3: The New Millennium


As the year 2000 was ushered in, werewolf films had seriously fallen to the wayside. However, digital effects were improving exponentially every year, making more elaborate werewolf transformations and designs more affordable. Make up and mechanical effects also continued to improve, and by this point there were make up schools all over the world graduating young & hungry talent every year. The next major werewolf title would be a very unlikely one.


Ginger Snaps (2000) was a low budget independent feature made in Canada by writer and director John Fawcett. A pair of outcast sisters try to navigate a hostile high school and their own emergent sexuality when a chance werewolf attack makes things infinitely more complicated. Anchored by some fine performances by it's young leads Emily Perkins and Katherine Isabelle, this became a film festival and video hit, and was followed by two less successful but still watchable sequels, Ginger Snaps 2: Unleashed and Ginger Snaps Back: The Beginning (both 2004).


Next up was 2002's Dog Soldiers, a British film from writer-director Neil Marshall. The plot concerns a squad of British Army troops on maneuvers in the Scottish Highlands who run afoul of local werewolves. Tightly paced and with excellent effects and set-pieces, this was another breakout festival hit. Featuring Kevin McKidd, Liam Cunningham, Sean Pertwee, and Emma Cleasby.


Dark Wolf (2003) was a minor video hit, with Samaire Armstrong and horror stalwart Kane Hodder. The bigger werewolf film of 2003 was Underworld, a vampire/werewolf mash-up with a lot of style if little originality. Inspired heavily by the pen-and-paper role-playing games of the previous decade from publisher White Wolf ("Vampire: The Masquerade", "Werewolf: The Apocalypse"), the story follows a vampire enforcer (a fetching Kate Beckinsale in black leather) who is on the front line of an underground war between vamps and Lycans (werewolves). With Michael Sheen as the Lycan leader, as well as Scott Speedman, Bill Nighy, and Sophia Myles. The film is more interested in fast-edit shoot-outs and rain-drenched imagery than real horror, but it's videogame aesthetic went over well with audiences and it was a hit. It's been followed by several sequels, including Underworld: Evolution (2006), Underworld: Rise of the Lycans (2009), Underworld: Awakening (2012), and Underworld: Next Generation is due later this year, 2016.


2004 saw a variety of different werewolves on the big screen. Kibakichi and Kibakichi 2 were a pair of Japanese werewolf samurai films. The big-budget tent-pole pic Van Helsing from Universal and director Stephen Sommers starred Hugh Jackman as the title hero, a superhero-esque re-imagining of the Dracula nemesis who battles Dracula, Frankenstein's Monster, as well as a werewolf played by Will Kemp. The film was a dud, and the intended series of sequels has yet to materialize. Finally, the highest profile werewolf of the year was Professor Remus Lupin, as played by David Thewlis, in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. He would return in 4 of the remaining 5 films of the series.


One of the most troubled werewolf productions ever was 2005's Cursed, from horror legend Wes Craven and Dimension Films. Featuring a script from Scream author Kevin Williamson, and with a young cast including Christina Ricci, Jesse Eisenberg, Joshua Jackson, Judy Greer, Milo Ventimiglia, Portia de Rossi, Shannon Elizabeth, and Scott Baio (?!), this should have been a slam dunk. However, a catastrophic series of script and production issues occurred, resulting in shutting down filming, and the eventual firing of many of the original main cast members, including Skeet Ulrich, Mandy Moore, Robert Forster, Omar Epps and Illeana Douglas. Rick Baker had provided the monster work, but all of his scenes were scrapped so when filming re-commenced KNB were brought in to redo all the werewolf footage. When the film eventually saw the light of day, it was a butchered mess, with tonal inconsistencies and poor editing. Due to it's pedigree though, it has remained in fairly frequent rotation on television.


Skinwalkers (2006) from Lionsgate was a werewolf action film with much unrealized potential, starring Jason Behr, Elias Koteas, Rhona Mitra, Kim Coates, and Sarah Carter. Big Bad Wolf (2006) was a B-movie feature with a bit of fun, and despite it's low-budget limitations, made a much better werewolf film than the following year's Blood & Chocolate (2007), from MGM and based on the supernatural romance novel by Annette Clause. Hugh Dancy stars as a young man who encounters the mysterious Vivian (Agnes Bruckner) in Bucharest, and falls immediately in love with her. The only problem is she's a werewolf, and is part of a large underground society of werewolves throughout the area. Her brother (Olivier Martinez) doesn't approve, so conflict ensues. This failed to make much impact, but prefigured the coming supernatural romance craze.


The Twilight series (2008-2012) brought even more romantic, bloodless werewolves to the screen, in the guise of Tiger Beat cover boy Taylor Lautner. Perhaps the less said, the better.


Another troubled film was 2010's The Wolfman, Universal's remake of the 1941 film. Benicio Del Toro starred as a sleepy-looking Larry Talbot who suffers the werewolf curse in the foggy English countryside. Co-starring Anthony Hopkins, Emily Blunt, Hugo Weaving and Geraldine Chaplin as the gypsy woman, there's a lot of love for the genre here, but much behind-the-scenes drama, including the replacement of the original director, resulted in a disappointing end product. That being said, it was the best werewolf film in a long time.


Since then, there have been several mid-to-low budget werewolf films, including Wolvesbayne (2009), Red: Werewolf Hunter (2010), Red Riding Hood (2011), Wer (2013), Wolfcop (2014), and even more that I haven't heard of, I'm sure. As long as they keep making them, I'll keep watching them, hoping for another good one.


I have one more major werewolf figure to discuss, as well as a couple of related Appendices to add at a later time.



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The Werewolf in Film


The earliest werewolf film appears to have been The Werewolf (1913) from the Bison Film Company. Unfortunately, all prints are thought to have been destroyed in a fire in 1924.




Well, you got me interested in this one, so here goes:


From Moving Picture World, Volume 19, 1913:




And an ad from the Daily Arkansas Gazette, December 21, 1913:



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The Werewolf In Film Post Script: El Hombre Lobo


Paul Naschy (1934-2009) was a Spanish actor, writer , producer and director who specialized in horror. His most enduring character was Count Waldemar Daninsky, a nobleman who is infected with lycanthropy after an attack. He turns into a Jack Pierce-style hairy faced Wolfman, and often acts as a sort of anti-hero, almost like the Hulk, whose beastly rage and aggression end up serving a noble purpose at one point or another. He first appeared in 1968's La Marca del Hombre Lobo a.k.a. The Mark of the Wolfman a.k.a. Frankenstein's Bloody Terror (there is no Frankenstein in this movie). The character returned in:


Las Noches del Hombre Lobo (1968) which seems to be a lost film. 


Dracula vs Frankenstein (1969)


La Furia del Hombre Lobo (1970) a.k.a. The Fury of the Wolfman.


The Werewolf vs. the Vampire Women (1970)


Dr. Jekyll and the Wolfman (1971)


Curse of the Devil (1972)


Night of the Howling Beast (1975)


Return of the Wolfman (1980)


The Beast and the Magic Sword (1983)


Lycantropus: the Moonlight Murders (1996)


Tomb of the Werewolf (2004)


While most, if not all, of these films will be viewed by modern American audiences as cheap, dumb bores, many of them were huge hits across Europe, and Naschy was a highly regarded figure in the Spanish film industry, even receiving the highest civilian honor from Spain's King Juan Carlos in 2001. I've only seen 4 of these titles so far, and I felt they were entertaining in a grindhouse way. I'd like to see the rest. 



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The Werewolf in Film - Appendix 1: Other Shifters


While I've covered the rich history of traditional werewolves in motion pictures, I feel I must also mention films that feature shapeshifters that take the form of creatures other than wolves, or other animal-people hybrids. In the "The Werewolf Book" (1999, Visible Ink Press), author Brad Steiger makes the argument that the Robert Louis Stevenson novel "Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde" and its various film adaptations are spiritual cousins to the werewolf, since it features a seemingly normal person that transforms into a more animalistic, violent other. That may be, but for my purposes, I opt not to cover the many, MANY Jekyll & Hyde films.


The first film I'll mention is another literary adaptation, this time H.G. Wells' Island of Lost Souls (1932), which features a variety of human/animal hybrids created by the mad Dr. Moreau in the "House of Pain." Later versions including The Island of Dr. Moreau (1977) with Burt Lancaster and Michael York, and The Island of Dr. Moreau (1996) with Marlon Brando and Val Kilmer, improved on the creature effects, if not the story. These animal people, however, don't really shapeshift, and are therefore only vaguely related to werewolves.


1942 saw a pair of noteworthy "shifter" films. First was The Mad Monster, from PRC, starring George Zucco as a scientist that transforms his handyman (Glenn Strange) into a ravenous beast-man. The thrills here are definitely of the B-movie variety. Next, and more importantly, came Cat People, from RKO, producer Val Lewton and director Jacques Tourneur. Simone Simon stars as a young woman who may or may not transform into a deadly black panther. There is tremendous atmosphere in this, and it's considered a masterpiece by some. The ambiguity of the film, though, may be an issue for modern audiences used to direct explanation rather than implication. There was a follow-up, The Curse of the Cat People (1944), also with Simon, and nearly forty years later came the remake, Cat People (1982), starring Nastassia Kinski in a more graphic, literal take.


Captive Wild Woman (1943) from Universal Pictures and director Edward Dmytryk, starred John Carradine as a scientist conducting "glandular" experiments in an effort to turn a gorilla into a human woman (he was really lonely). He succeeds, and the resulting woman, played by exotic beauty Acquanetta, finds time for love and excitement at the circus. The film was a success, so there were two sequels, Jungle Woman (1944) and Jungle Captive (1945).


I'll mention a few other "shifter" movies, then feel free to post about others I have not listed. The Reptile (1966) from Hammer, features a human/snake hybrid. 1972's Blood Freak is a z-grade, low budget wonder about a guy who turns into a sort of chicken monster. The Beast Within (1982) centers around a young man who changes into a cicada bug monster. Sleepwalkers (1992) from an original script by Stephen King, features a family of were-cats that are also psychic vampires! 


One final special case is Nightbreed (1990), written and directed by Clive Barker, and based on his novella "Cabal". The story details the strange denizens of Midian, an underground community of various monsters of all sorts and stripes. Among them are a number of shapeshifters, but they don't really turn into any identifiable animal creatures, just different, original monsters. It's a fascinating, unique film that doesn't quite live up to its potential, but I highly recommend it to any horror or fantasy fans. Canadian director David Cronenberg (Scanners, Videodrome, The Fly) co-stars as a mask-wearing serial killer. Barker's idea behind the story was what if the monsters of old (Dracula, Frankenstein, etc) faced off with the monsters of the modern era (Freddy, Jason, Michael Myers).

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A neglected werewolf film is 1942's The Undying Monster, from 20th Century Fox. It's available on youtube.


I've heard of it, but haven't seen it yet. I believe it was released on DVD fairly recently as part of a box set, as well.


Yes, Fox Horror Classics Collection, which also includes the Laird Cregar version of The Lodger and Hangover Square.



Another werewolf film, or at least werewolf adjacent, was 2001's Brotherhood of the Wolf, a French film that had a wide release in the U.S. as well. It has some visually interesting things going on, and the story (based loosely on a true historical incident) is intriguing at first, but by the end it kind of falls apart. 

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Another "animal" film that occurs to me is The Catman of Paris, released in 1946. I think I saw it a long time ago, but I don't know if it's available anywhere. I do remember reading about it in an issue of Famous Monsters of Filmland - the issue included a photo of Robert Wilke (known for his tough-guy roles) being made up as the Catman. He was doubling for the star.

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I remember Wilke. He was a great heavy in a lot of westerns, on tv and films. I seem to recall the title of Catman of Paris, but I haven't seen it. 


I looked it up, and it was a Republic picture, from '46, with Carl Esmond, Lenore Aubert, and Douglas Dumbrille. John Dehner and Anthony Caruso are low in the cast list too. 


I need to see it!

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